Biomedical Sciences research graduate has work on fatty acids published

Recent MU Biomedical Sciences Research M.S. graduate, William L. Patterson III, “Billy”, has authored a review on the relationship between omega-3 Fatty Acids (FA), inflammation and cancer with his graduate advisor, Dr. Philippe Georgel (Biomedical Science Graduate Program faculty in the Cancer Biology research cluster.)

Billy Patterson_news2014Mr. Patterson submitted a manuscript which reviewed the various pathways affected by omega-3 Fatty Acids related to cancer. The international journal, Biochemistry and Cell Biology (BCB), accepted this article for publication in May, and it appeared in a special edition of the BCB in July. This topic is highly relevant to the public interest regarding diet and health. It includes details of the biochemical processes that can be affected by the daily consumption of omega-3 Fatty Acids in the form of canola oil or fish products.

Dr. Georgel indicated that Mr. Patterson had performed the research for this analysis as a part of his thesis, and expressed the excitement that he always feels when a student’s work is recognized.

Since graduation, Billy continues to conduct research, but with Dr. Michael Norton (Biomedical Sciences Graduate Faculty, Neuroscience and Developmental Biology research cluster) on Marshall’s Huntington Campus.

For further information, please view the abstract for Patterson’s article.

Biomedical Sciences professor invited to present at Asilomar Chromatin and Chromosomes Conference

Philippe Georgel, Ph.D., a professor in Marshall’s Biomedical Sciences Graduate Program Cancer Biology Research Cluster, was invited to speak at the recent Asilomar Chromatin and Chromosomes Conference, which was held on December 16th in Pacific Grove, CA. He presented entirely new research, for which he designed most of the experimental procedure, and was performed by Dr. Ata Abbas, a postdoctoral fellow in his laboratory.

Ata Abbas, Ph.D.

Ata Abbas, Ph.D., a postdoctoral fellow in Dr. Philippe Georgel’s laboratory.

The study reports the positive effect of omega-3 fatty acid treatment on various breast cancer cell lines. The omega-3 treatment modified the profile of expression of Human Leukocyte Antigen G (HLA-G), a molecule important in the immune evasion properties displayed by numerous types of cancerous cells. The treated cells display an HLA-G expression profile that resembles that of normal epithelial breast cells as well as a reduced ability to migrate (a property that can be indicative of lower metastatic abilities).

Philippe Georgel, Ph.D., Professor within the College of Science and Biomedical Sciences Graduate Program

Philippe Georgel, Ph.D., Professor within the College of Science and Biomedical Sciences Graduate Program

 

 

When asked what this research means to “non-scientists,” Georgel good-naturedly responded, “Our research is one additional piece of evidence to support the role of diet in preventing and/or helping find a cure for breast cancer (as well as other cancer types). An increase in omega-3 fatty acid (FA) in our regular diet can be easily achieved by substituting corn oil (rich in omega-6 FA and poor in omega-3 FA) with canola oil (rich in omega-3 FA and low in  omega-6 FA), and also by eating more fish (omega-3-FA-rich).”

This project will be expanded to include the analysis of HLA-G expression profile in tissues from breast cancer patients’ biopsies and a small scale clinical trial involving daily consumption of omega-3 fatty acids (in collaboration with Dr. Rajesh Sehgal, Medical Oncologist at the Edwards Comprehensive Cancer Center). The results will be used as preliminary material for a submission to the National Institutes of Health and/or the Department of Defense. 

Drs. Hardman and Georgel highlighted by DoD Breast Cancer Research Program

Dr. Philippe Georgel and Dr. W. Elaine HardmanDr. Philippe Georgel and Dr. W. Elaine Hardman have received considerable publicity in the past few years over their receipt of a grant from the Department of Defense’s Breast Cancer Research Program. Their most recent honor comes in being highlighted in the latest program book for the Congressionally Directed Medical Research Programs’ (CDMRP) Breast Cancer Research Program. Their research, the result of a DoD FY09 Idea Expansion award, is entitled “Maternal Consumption of Omega-3 Fatty Acids May Prevent Breast Cancer in Offspring.”

In 1992, the CDMRP was created after breast cancer advocates were able to bring about congressional appropriation of funds dedicated to breast cancer research. The fund seeks to find a way to stamp out breast cancer through support of research that is innovative and has the potential of great impact in the understanding of breast cancer. The CDMRP has received more than $6.5 billion in appropriations since its creation. Receipt of the award comes after a two-tier review process consisting of participation between breast cancer survivors and research scientists. Award of the grant is based upon the relevance of the research to the goals of the program and the scientific merit of the proposed research.

The research of Drs. Hardman and Georgel is directed toward determining which gene expression changes in mice offspring are brought about by feeding pregnant mice a diet that includes canola oil (which contains omega-3) versus a diet that contains corn oil (a control). They then compare the mammary cancer rates of the offspring groups after they are exposed to a carcinogen. Results from their research already indicate differences in microRNA and epigenetic expression in the offspring, as well as changes in the expression of genes related to mammary tumorigenesis, including NF-kappaB.

Congratulations to Dr. Georgel and Dr. Hardman! To read the spotlight on their research in the CDMRP booklet (see page 19), please download the file through this link: http://cdmrp.army.mil/pubs/pips/bcpip.pdf.

Dr. Georgel and BMS doctoral student J. Adam Hall co-author chapter

Philippe Georgel, Ph.D.Marshall University doctoral student J. Adam Hall and faculty member Dr. Philippe T. Georgel have collaborated to write a chapter for a new book focusing on RNA processing in animal and plant cells.

Their chapter describes the interaction between RNA splicing and chromatin, and appears in the book “RNA Processing,” which was edited by Paula Grabowski and published in August. The book is freely available online through open access publisher InTech.

In describing their research, Hall explains that RNA, or ribonucleic acid, acts as the “middle man” of molecular biology. DNA, or deoxyribonucleic acid, is the carrier of basic genetic information. A cell uses DNA to make RNA, which in turn makes proteins.

Hall says that alterations to RNA can have a significant influence on the type and/or amount of protein produced, creating crucial differences in the identity of the cell and how it functions. The study of these modifications caused by factors outside of the DNA sequence itself is known as “epigenetics.”

“Factors and mechanisms involved in the epigenetic regulation of gene expression and protein production have been linked to a variety of human diseases and developmental disorders,” said Hall. “Furthering the knowledge of these epigenetic processes and the factors involved, including the information we highlighted for this publication, will be a crucial component of translating scientific advances into potential medical breakthroughs down the road.”

Georgel added, “In recent years, a much better understanding of gene regulation has led to many important breakthroughs in the fields of cellular differentiation, development and disease. The specific mechanism of regulation we describe in this chapter has never been reported before in any biological system, so we think it could be an important contribution to the existing body of work.”

J. Adam Hall, Ph.D. studentA native of Crown City, Ohio, Hall received his bachelor’s degree in molecular biology from Marshall in 2005 and started his doctoral studies in 2006. He finished his graduate coursework with a 4.0 grade point average and was awarded the Biomedical Sciences program’s top award for academic performance in 2007 and research performance in 2008. In 2009, Hall became the first Marshall student to receive the prestigious National Institutes of Health Ruth L. Kirschstein Pre-doctoral Fellowship, which provided two years of support totaling more than $70,000. He will complete his Ph.D. in December and plans to continue his scientific career in the field of epigenetics, with a focus on translational research.

Georgel is a professor of biological sciences and director of Marshall’s Cell Differentiation and Development Center. He has been at Marshall since 2002.

The complete chapter is available at http://www.intechopen.com/source/pdfs/18456/InTech-The_worlds_of_splicing_and_chromatin_collide.pdf.

For more information, contact Georgel at georgel@marshall.edu or call 304-696-3965.

Dr. Philippe Georgel participates in Era of Hope Conference

Update: The Era of Hope website now contains a link to the Era of Hope Conference press briefing. The first principal investigator interviewed in the briefing is Dr. Georgel. You may listen to the briefing and view the accompanying powerpoint presentation on the Era of Hope Conference multimedia page.

The following story originally ran on EurekAlert!: http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2011-08/udod-rld080111.php


Era of Hope conference to feature compelling research examining benefits to daughters based on mother’s diet

Philippe Georgel, Ph.D.

Dr. Philippe Georgel recently traveled to San Antonio to present his research at the 20th International Analytical Ultracentrifugation Conference.

ORLANDO, Fla. — August 3, 2011 — During pregnancy, women are counseled to refrain from consuming certain types of foods, beverages and medications in order to avoid jeopardizing the health and development of the fetus. In fact, the American Pregnancy Association has a list of a dozen items they recommend expectant mothers omit from their diets. However, there are some additions, such as folic acid, that, when taken before and/or during pregnancy, can actually reduce the risk of birth defects and other disorders.1 Research presented today at the Era of Hope conference, a scientific meeting hosted by the Department of Defense Breast Cancer Research Program (BCRP), reveals findings suggesting that if an expectant mother increases her consumption of foods high in certain fatty acids or nutrients during her pregnancy, she can potentially reduce the risk of breast cancer in her female offspring.

The research delves into breast cancer risk reductions attributed to the fetus when the mother, while pregnant, increases omega 3 fatty acids within her diet or consumes dietary methyl nutrients (methionine, choline, folate and vitamin B12). Some findings hypothesize that these diet augmentations may even prevent breast cancer from ever developing in the offspring.

“This is exciting and intriguing research,” said Captain Melissa Kaime, M.D., Director of the Congressionally Directed Medical Research Programs (CDMRP), under which the BCRP is managed. “To be able to reduce the risk and possibly prevent this devastating disease before birth is an incredible notion; the BCRP is proud to support research with such potential.”

Maternal Consumption of Omega 3 Fatty Acids to Reduce Breast Cancer Risk in Offspring
Principal Investigator: Philippe T. Georgel, PhD, Marshall University

Maternal dietary alterations, including increasing the consumption of omega 3 fatty acids, may reduce the risk of breast cancer to the fetus by causing epigenetic changes in utero and later through nursing. These changes may alter gene expression permanently, a change referred to as imprinting. Researchers at Marshall University conducted a study to investigate whether having a diet rich in omega 3s while pregnant would result in changes to fetal mammary gland gene expression, thereby reducing the chance that female offspring would later develop breast cancer.

In this study, there was a reduced incidence of mammary gland cancer observed for the offspring of mice that, while pregnant and nursing, consumed a diet containing canola oil, rich in omega 3, compared with the offspring of mice that, while pregnant and nursing, consumed a diet containing corn oil rich in omega 6 fatty acids. Reviewing the gene expression profiles of both groups showed that many genes related to cancer development differed between the two groups. Significant differences in the patterns of two important epigenetic markers were also observed.

“Pregnant women should be mindful of what they consume since their diet may incite epigenetic changes that could impact the development of their offspring, not just in utero but also for time to come,” said Dr. Philippe Georgel, Marshall University. “Additional research continues, as we seek to elucidate the effect of diet on breast cancer-specific gene expression.”

About the Era of Hope

The Era of Hope (EOH) conference joins scientists, clinicians and breast cancer advocates committed to advancing research on the prevention, detection, diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer. From August 2-5, 2011 in Orlando, Florida, the EOH will feature prominent scientists and clinicians with presentations of recent remarkable advances in breast cancer research funded by the Department of Defense Breast Cancer Research Program (BCRP). This research challenges paradigms and pushes boundaries to identify innovative, high-impact approaches for future breast cancer research and discoveries.

The EOH conference is recognized as one of the premier breast cancer research conferences, and this year marks the sixth conference of its kind. The EOH will bring together more than 1,600 BCRP awardees, advocates, and invited speakers in an atmosphere of collaborative thinking in the fight against breast cancer. The EOH is a unique opportunity for advocates and expert scientists from different fields and research areas to discuss unanswered questions, share ideas, identify promising directions in breast cancer research, and develop collaborative partnerships. The conference will unveil innovative research and discoveries that are essential to ultimately eradicating the disease. For more information about the EOH, please visit https://cdmrpcures.org/ocs/index.php/eoh/eoh2011. Follow the Era of Hope conference on Twitter @EraofHope.

About the Congressionally Directed Medical Research Programs

In the early 1990s, the breast cancer advocacy community launched a grassroots effort to raise public awareness for the crucial need of increased funding in breast cancer research. Beginning in fiscal year 1992 (FY92), Congress appropriated $25 million for breast cancer research to be managed by the Department of Defense. The following year, Congress continued to respond to the advocacy movement and appropriated $210 million for breast cancer research, marking the beginning of the Congressionally Directed Medical Research Programs (CDMRP). The CDMRP represents a unique partnership among the public, Congress and the military. Because of continued and expanded advocacy efforts, the CDMRP has grown to encompass multiple targeted programs spanning cancer research, military medical research, and other disease, injury or condition specific research. The CDMRP has received $6.525 billion in appropriations from its inception through FY11 and more than 10,000 awards have been made across 25 different programs through FY10. For more information about the CDMRP, please visit http://www.cdmrp.army.mil

MU professor to present poster on effects of diet on breast cancer

Philippe Georgel, Ph.D.

HUNTINGTON, W.Va. – Dr. Philippe T. Georgel, a professor of biological sciences and director of the Cell Differentiation and Development Center at Marshall University, will present a poster on the effects of diet on breast cancer at the Era of Hope 2011 Conference in Orlando, Fla.

The Era of Hope Conference provides a forum for scientists and clinicians from a variety of disciplines to join breast cancer survivors and advocates in learning about the advances made by the Department of Defense Breast Cancer Research Program (BCRP) awardees, to challenge paradigms and push boundaries, and to identify innovative, high-impact approaches for future research.

This year’s conference is Tuesday, Aug. 2, through Friday, Aug. 5 at the Orlando World Center Marriott. Recognized as one of the premiere breast cancer research meetings, the Era of Hope Conference is expected to attract more than 1,600 BCRP awardees, survivors and invited speakers, fostering an atmosphere for collaborative thinking in the fight against breast cancer.

Georgel’s abstract, done in collaboration with Dr. Elaine Hardman and titled Maternal Consumption of Omega 3 Fatty Acids to Reduce Breast Cancer Risk in Offspring, was chosen for the conference by the Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC).

The research project investigates the ability of a maternal diet rich in omega 3 fatty acids (found in fish oil and canola oil, for example) to reduce the incidence of breast cancer and to limit growth of malignant mammary tumors in the female offspring.

The mechanism involved appears to be linked to long-term changes in gene expression mediated by epigenetic events (regulatory events that do not involve DNA mutations).

“The DOD ‘Era of Hope’ selection committee picks projects they believe have a good chance to generate potential applications in the future in terms of prevention of breast cancer,” Georgel said. “This type of study provides a window to the multiple long-term positive effects associated with a balanced diet, not only for the individuals but also for their offspring.”

Georgel has been at Marshall since fall 2002.

Dr. Hardman featured by MU-Advance

W. Elaine Hardman, Ph.D.Dr. Elaine Hardman of the Biomedical Sciences Program has been featured by MU-Advance, an organization on campus that seeks to empower, retain, and recruit female faculty members in the fields of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). The following is the piece the MU-Advance ran on Dr. Hardman:

Education

A.A. (Biology), Lake City Junior College
B.S. (Biology), Auburn University at Montgomery

Ph.D. (Cell Biology), University of Texas Health Science Center

Research

Dr. Hardman recently received a grant from the Department of Defense Breast Cancer Research Program to further her studies on the effects of omega-3 fatty acids on breast cancer development. Dr. Hardman, in collaboration with Dr. Philippe Georgel, an associate professor of Biological Sciences, garnered more than $780,000 to conduct the research study. In addition, the National Cancer Institute awarded Dr. Hardman a grant ($266,000 for the fourth year) to study how the maternal diet can significantly reduce the lifetime risk of mammary gland cancer in the female offspring of mice. This particular study focuses on long-chain (20 or 22 carbons) omega-3 fatty acids. Her research has found that consumption of canola oil in the diet, instead of corn oil, may reduce the risk for mammary gland cancer. Also, a grant from the American Institute for Cancer Research allows Dr. Hardman to assess the effects of walnut (a good source of omega-3 fat and various phytosterols) consumption on breast cancer development. Money provided by the Cancer Research and Prevention Foundation funds the identification of molecular mechanisms for altered interactions between adipocytes and mammary epithelial cells when omega-3 fats are incorporated into the cells.

Teaching

Dr. Hardman, a School of Medicine professor, currently teaches a Biomedical Sciences graduate course in Lipid Metabolism, and two Medical Biochemistry courses, Lipid Metabolism and Nutrition. Dr. Hardman previously taught Cancer Biology and Prevention.   

Service and Outreach

Dr. Hardman serves as an editorial advisor for the journal Cancer Cell International. She is an active member of the American Association for Cancer Research and Women in Cancer Research. Dr. Hardman is also the Treasurer for the International Federation of Cell Biology, serving since 2000. In addition, Dr. Hardman serves on the Scientific Advisory Board for the California Walnut Council.

Contact Info

Telephone: (304) 696-7339
E-mail: hardmanw@marshall.edu
News: Marshall researcher receives post-doctoral award from Cancer Research and Prevention Foundation