THE INTEGRATION OF MARSHALL UNIVERSITY ATHLETICS
From 1954 until 1983 black athletes at Marshall University1 experienced myriad forms of institutional and socially-accepted racism. Paramount to understanding the process of integration during this period is an overview of the policies and practices at Marshall. To that end a discussion of the tenure of Dr. Stewart Smith, Marshall’s President from1940-1968, will reveal the administration’s impact on integration. Additional insight will be gleaned from examination of the controversial song “Dixie” that was played at Marshall home athletic games. Also, the experiences of former Marshall black athletes, such as Hal Greer and Phil Carter, will form an integral part of this discussion. Their stories will reveal aspects of campus life, the social atmosphere of Huntington, and the nature of their acceptance on the playing field. This multipronged approach will demonstrate that the integration of athletics at Marshall University was a slow and often painful process.
The major changes for Marshall during the tenure of President Smith were the gaining of university status and the beginnings of integration. President Smith emerged as a neutral figure whose attitude toward integration was reflected by the status quo of the white residents of Huntington. His presidency represents Marshall; thus, it is important to see the actions he took, those that he didn’t, and how black athletes viewed him.
President Smith is portrayed as an advocate for African-American rights in the campus publication titled Marshall University: An Institution Comes of Age, 1837-1980.2 In the section on “Integrating the Black Students,” it is stated: “Smith attempted to eradicate every vestige of discrimination on the campus.”3 None of those interviewed for this paper had anything outright negative to say about President Smith as a person, although many black athletes felt that he was a distant presence. Although, he did not oppose integration, it is evident from his handling of racial issues on campus that President Smith was out of touch with the changing racial picture. In a letter to President Davis of West Virginia State University in 1955, President Smith states that the success of Marshall’s integration was due to an official policy of “integrating quietly.”4
Controversies on campus during Dr. Smith’s presidency included the infamous Rockwell letter, Kappa Alpha’s “Old South Weekend,” and his feelings toward the CIP (Civic Interest Progressives), an organization known for its picketing and demonstrations for black rights. The incident surrounding the Rockwell letter was initiated by a black student’s letter in 1967 to The Parthenon, the college newspaper, that expressed his desire to join a fraternity. In response to that letter another student, Richard Lee Rockwell, wrote, “history shows that the Negro has never constructed anything beyond a grass shack.”5 Tensions among the black students subsequently grew. This prompted President Smith to issue a statement deeming the printing of the letter as “absolutely inexcusable.”6
Another incident that occurred about the same time as the Rockwell letter elicited a comment from President Smith. On February 4, 1967 Marshall played the University of Toledo. During this basketball game a black Marshall player, Jim Davidson, knocked out a member of the opposing team.7 Although the newspapers made no comment on motive, it was alleged that the attack was in retaliation for an earlier comment that the white player made in which he called Davidson, “a black son of a bitch.” This was unknown to all but those involved.8 President Smith commented that Davidson’s act was “inexcusable.” Furthermore, the Commissioner of the Mid-American Conference had contacted President Smith with the warning that one more “overt act of violence” and Davidson would be off the team. While Smith’s comment is not a questionable one, his choice of venue is. It was delivered at a forum that involved student discussion of race relations.9
President Smith supported the annual “Old South Weekend,” one of the traditions at Marshall that had overt racial implications. The activities involved with this weekend were: the drawing of a Mason-Dixon line through campus, the KA fraternity members dressing up in Confederate uniforms, and President Smith ceremoniously handing over the keys to the University.10 Controversy had swirled around this event for years, even after it was toned down to an extent beginning in 1964.11 This was an offensive and intimidating experience for the black students on campus. Bruce Moody remarked that, “while most thought it was all cute during the day. Once it got dark and everyone had a few drinks in them the scene was ugly.”12 Moody’s assessment was a sentiment that all athletes interviewed shared.
President Smith was not the social leader that the author of An Institution Comes of Age, claimed him to be, but a person who sought change through the progression of time. The book indicates that Smith did not approve of those looking to push the envelope of integration. He was quoted as saying that members of the CIP had, “succeeded in undoing much of the progress made at Marshall in the area of improved human relations.”13 While President Smith was supportive of integration, including his condemnation of racial slurs and his persuasion of local hoteliers to house visiting black athletes, his gradual approach to full racial equality on campus often resulted in retrenchment rather than progression. His policies seem hypocritical when he tacitly supports integration, yet undermines it by allowing activities like “Old South Weekend.”
Another controversial activity that was condoned by President Smith was the playing of the song “Dixie” at home games. The wide coverage in The Parthenon emphasized the problematic nature of the song. Originating during the 1850s, the song ridiculed African-American Vernacular English. The Confederacy even adopted it as their theme song. A century later, it was a popular song played at athletic events at Marshall University. Thus, the university-sponsored playing of this song, coupled with prominent displays of the Confederate flag around town made the campus and Huntington a hostile environment for black athletes of the day.
On February 10, 1967 in The Parthenon, the University policy is called into question by student Katura Carey who noted that racial overtones were prominent during games. She pointed out that the flying of Confederate flags, along with students constantly urging the band to play “Dixie” was unnerving.14 Following this, a fellow student wrote on February 15 to The Parthenon that “Dixie” contained “no malicious intent.” Yet, the opening line of the song contradicts this student and illustrates the nature of its racial bigotry: “I wish I was in de land ob cotton.”15 In the February 22nd edition of The Parthenon, PresidentSmith said, that “Dixie” would no longer be played at Marshall games since the student group claimed, “it had a connotation of white supremacy.”16 However, this would not be the last time the student body would hear it at games. Shortly thereafter, the song was reinstated by President Smith who retracted the ban saying, “after carefully considered conviction that censorship in any form is not compatible with the university’s search for truth.”17 The continued playing of “Dixie” was consistent with the racially biased attitude present on campus. Sadly, this attitude found itself onto the athletic field and followed the African-American athletes on campus.
The scene on campus for black student athletes and for the relatively small black population was one of a prevailing ignorance about the black student. Campus life was described as, “non-existent” by Bruce Moody. Moody also wrote an article in The Parthenon addressing the racial injustices during his time and Marshall’s position in all of them.18 The Herald-Dispatch quoted Hall of Fame19 football player Dixon Edwards, Jr.20 saying, “Back in those days, the white kids had a whole lot of fun. We didn’t.”21 At best, the treatment of the black student on campus could be called ignorance; at worst it was disparaging and mean.22
This treatment carried over into the classroom. A case in 1967 involving improper grading was alleged in The Parthenon. In addition, black students were denied entrance to off-campus classes, and were subjected to racial bigotry through professors’ lectures. During the February 1967 meeting with the group of students concerning the infamous Rockwell letter, President Smith also addressed a letter he had received from the Huntington Business Club. This letter from club president Joe Slash23 charged that “Negro students at Marshall were being discriminated against by professors when grades were handed out.” He went on to say, “Almost all of the Negro students harbor this feeling (unfair grading).” President Smith indicated that this was a, “very serious charge.”24 While the nature of grades couldn’t be further ascertained, the comments made by some of the professors illustrate further prejudice. For example, Bruce Moody had a class with a few of his fellow teammates.25 After an especially big game, the unnamed professor had the class congratulate the members of the team, singling out every player except Bruce Moody. Moody recalls, “I wasn’t mentioned by the professor until someone said: ‘hey Bruce played good too!’ Then the professor acknowledged me with: ‘Oh yeah and Bruce’…”26 It was this type of overt slights that seemed to pervade the classroom.
On a more serious issue, Phil Carter revealed to Bruce Thompson that he was called a “nigger” in class.27 Larry Jarrett, who went to school with Phil Carter, hinted at this incident, but only said, “There was an incident where something was said in class by the professor to another athlete.”28 To be sure, not all professors were unjust; a few were actually very encouraging. Phil Carter fondly remembered several professors.29
Another academic issue involved attendance at classes held off campus in the town of Huntington. Bruce Moody in an address to the University in The Parthenon discussed the racial situation in Huntington. He cited an incident when two black students had signed up for a PE course at Marshall which was to take place at the Riviera Golf Course. Moody said, “When two Negro students arrived, they were told that they could not be admitted because of their race.”30 Moody felt that even though it wasn’t the teacher’s fault, he should have checked ahead of time to save these students from embarrassment.31 It is evident that the black students did not receive equal treatment as their white peers.
Another overt example of prejudice manifested itself in the form of excluding Bruce Moody from the sports section of the University yearbook. During his senior year he remembers having a great season and eagerly awaiting the yearbook’s arrival.32 However, his girlfriend obtained the yearbook first and told him that he didn’t want to see it. Although Moody and a white player named Lou Motts were named co-inspirational players of the year, only Motts picture was in the yearbook. This was a demoralizing experience for the senior Bruce Moody.33
The overall campus atmosphere for black students was unsettling as Hal Greer’s experience illustrates. Greer, became the first African-American athlete to be offered a scholarship to a Division One college in West Virginia.34 Greer’s Jackie Robinsonesque demeanor manifested itself in his outward indifference towards racial insults.
Hal Greer was born and raised in Huntington, West Virginia. He attended the segregated Douglass High School where he was a basketball star. His college decision came down to the Elizabeth City Teachers College that his older brother, J.B., attended, or accept Cam Henderson’s offer to play at then Marshall College.35
His choice of Marshall drew limited coverage in the newspapers. Huntington sports writer, Ernie Salvatore, purposefully downplayed this monumental event.36 The most coverage his presence received in the papers was the mention of his being the first “Negro” to play at Marshall.37 However, Hal’s presence on the team was not insignificant; the first practice was held in front of a packed gym. The only other black person in the gym that day was the janitor, Fred Austin.38 This type of isolation would follow Hal throughout his career at Marshall.
While his scholarship in 1954 came an entire decade before West Virginia University offered a black athlete a scholarship.39 Greer’s experience at Marshall was challenging. Even Marshall’s own sports programs had undertones of racial bigotry. For example, Greer was described as a player who possessed “panther-like quickness” in the Marshall Press and Radio Guide in 1956. None of the white players had received such an animal reference.40 The newspaper gave Greer his nickname of “Hurrying Hal,” deriving from his grandmother’s habit of having him hurry out of the door to go back ‘over there.’ He would come home after school “too tired and too upset to eat.” She would hear him talk about how he wished he would have gone to Elizabeth City Teachers College and that he felt like an outsider at Marshall, but would warn him that by quitting he would be making a huge mistake.41
When Greer walked off the court for the last time at Marshall, Ernie Salvatore reported that the applause was “the most dramatic and prolonged ovations in twenty years.” To Coach Rivlin, Greer was the, “easiest kid I ever coached.”42 Greer maintained good relationships with teammates and demonstrated that black student-athletes could have success at Marshall. However, the next round of black student-athletes experienced the brunt of social change within the community of Huntington. By the 1960s tensions between Huntington’s white population and those crusading for equal treatment reached the boiling point.
One of the black athletes most affected by this growing racial tension was Phil Carter. Born in a coal-mining camp in Clay County, Carter grew up in segregated Clarksburg, West Virginia.43 He came to Marshall to play basketball because he admired what Hal Greer was achieving. As a freshman in 1959, he was a walk-on for the basketball team and gained a full scholarship after his first semester.44 Phil Carter enjoyed much success on the court.45 However he is best known for his social justice movements.
Carter became the person most responsible for the sweeping civil rights movement in the city of Huntington.46 As a result of his activism47, he was named one of the 50 most influential leaders in the Tri-State area during the 20th Century by the Herald-Dispatch.48 Carter became involved in the movement for equality with the picketing of the Palace Theater which was spearheaded by fellow black teammate Bruce Moody. This action was set in motion because Moody discovered that he had accidentally gone to the Palace Theater on “Negro Night.” This incident led Moody and Carter to gather support from blacks in the community to picket the Palace Theater for its racial policy. The two black players also received support from the NAACP. Moody said that they “picketed because it was a symbol. I wanted people to know that it was unjust.” After Moody graduated, Carter continued to protest against other businesses.49
While his black teammates and white friends revered his efforts, his activism made him a danger to the white power structure in place, and also made him a target.50 Tensions mounted after Phil Carter started the Civic Interest Progressives (CIP) when a few white friends approached him about issues plaguing black students at Marshall.51 The demonstrations that resulted from this organization drew a lot of attention. The restaurants that he and members of the CIP desegregated were Bailey’s Cafeteria and the White Pantry.52 In 1963 the situation escalated, and a cattle prod was used on Carter during a demonstration at the White Pantry.53 The attempt to desegregate this restaurant ultimately resulted in Carter’s arrest.54
The racial inequality that players such as Hal Greer and Phil Carter encountered in their everyday lives as students at Marshall was difficult and dangerous at times. This resulted in an alienation from their white counterparts which was disheartening. It was the issues during the games and on the road trips that drew the most concern for many of the black players. Even the courageous Phil Carter noted that everyone was aware of the danger that surrounded making stops on the road.55 The mental anguish that black players experienced on the road were more profound than any possible physical incidents. It was the very real possibility of a physical altercation that was the source of unease for black athletes concerning away games, particularly those south of Marshall. The challenges they faced were embarrassing at times, but spoke to the resilience of the players. Black athletes often faced these challenges alone. For example, while Hal Greer had the reputation for avoiding racial situations on the road, it was not due to an accepting environment but rather to his mindset of remaining as unpolarizing as possible.
Greer encountered multiple issues in Charleston, such as the time when the team was checked into a hotel, but he was refused entry. It wasn’t until Coach Rivlin threatened the clerk with calls to the Governor and the newspapers that Greer was finally admitted. These “run-ins” did affect him. The game the team played that night was the only time in his career that Greer was held scoreless.
Coach Rivlin was known to take precautions to save his black players from any embarrassment, by compiling a list of places that the team would be able to stop for bathroom breaks, meals, and accommodations. However, this did not solve all of the issues for Greer. One cold January night the team was forced to take shelter in an unfamiliar motel. His teammates jokingly told Greer to slump down in the car so the manager wouldn’t see him and they could then stay the night. Sadly, this joke turned out to be all too real as the manager spotted Greer walking into the room and told Rivlin that they couldn’t stay there. Rivlin once again backed up his star player by saying that he would take their $300 of business elsewhere. As a result, the manager allowed the team to stay but advised them, in particular Greer, to stay in their rooms. This was an action that Greer had already accepted as necessary.56
It wasn’t only the traveling part of away games where problems occurred. There were also incidents during the games. Greer recalled one instance that occurred during a baseball game at VMI, where he was subjected to derogatory catcalls.57 Once again, he turned away stating that he, “had tunnel vision… I didn’t pay no attention to it at all.”58 These are but a few of the racist experiences that Greer experienced on the road.
Black athletes who followed Greer were not spared the on-court racism. In the 1960s, players such as Larry Jarrett, Phil Carter, and Bruce Moody encountered similar racially-related problems on the road. It wasn’t until the late 1960s that traveling became more bearable, specifically for the basketball teams, but this was due more to the cohesiveness of the team.59 In fact, Greer’s apparent ease with which he shook off the mistreatment made it even harder on some of the next players. Bruce Moody, who played from 1958-1961, was one such player. He remembers being booed every time that he touched the ball during a game at Virginia Tech. Coach Rivlin expected Moody to react in the same nonplussed way that Greer had, but Moody instinctively “had a more combative response.” Incidents of booing happened at most of the games throughout the South; Morehead State, Eastern Kentucky, University of Louisville, among others, these were not hospitable places to travel. Even the referees at these away games proved to be an obstacle. The setting for one of these games was at Eastern Kentucky University, where Moody scored three baskets on offensive putbacks and had ten rebounds all in the first half. Beginning in the second half, the defensive player assigned to cover Moody was burying himself into Moody’s chest so that Moody could not move his arms. This blatant personal foul was a responsibility that obviously fell to the officials of the game, who took no action. This was yet another time when the black athlete was just expected to ignore the injustice.60
By the late 1960s, the players on Marshall’s athletic teams were still encountering problems. There was a physical altercation on a road trip to FSU during the 1966-1967 season. The team exited a fast-food restaurant after hearing racial slurs directed towards them. The hecklers followed them, continuing the verbal abuse. This ended with the Marshall team banding together and “beating their butts.”61
Female athletes on the road did not escape the specter of racism. Beverly Duckwyler’s experience was different from the men’s in that they (women) rarely stayed in hotels due to financial constraints and were responsible for their own transportation to the games. She felt immense trepidation about away games in general, particularly those in the South. One time during volleyball season, Duckwyler was traveling with another black teammate to a game in Tennessee when they stopped to eat at a restaurant and were refused service. Their reaction was to leave the restaurant and to find another place that would serve them. She also remembers the countless stares that followed her during these away games. She dealt with this, “by trying to be numb to the fact that people would yell and stare at you.” Duckwyler felt that her heavy focus on athletics kept her from being as aware of the racial issues surrounding her.62
Although these experiences on the road were demeaning to the black athletes, more overt biases emerged during the games themselves. Marshall had a quota system for its sports teams.63 This meant that only a certain number of blacks were allowed on each team. The quotas also had implications for starting positions for the games. For example, Bruce Moody was a starter his junior year. However, at the beginning of the next season he found himself relegated to the third string. Moody recalled coming into practice one day and realizing that someone else had been given “a starting spot that I felt I had earned. A player came up to me and said, ‘Hey man that was your spot.’ This was always good to hear, but it was rarely said.”64 The media became aware of this type of discrimination.
The magazine Sports Illustrated focused on these biases in 1968 in a five-part series entitled “The Black Athlete.”65 The series explored many issues plaguing black athletes at the time. The magazine noted the relegation of blacks to certain “non-thinking positions.”66 This practice was confirmed by Phil Carter and Larry Jarrett.67 Black players felt that their white teammates were out of touch with the situation that black athletes faced. Phil Carter emphasized this when he said, “It was almost like many of them were from a different planet than us.”68
Black athletes even encountered a form of racism when they were told which sports to play. For example, Moody came to Marshall in 1957 to play basketball, which he did his freshman year. However, during his sophomore year, Moody received notice from the team manager asking him as well as his fellow black athletes to meet at the track in the morning. He was told, “if you want to eat, then you will come out to run track this year.” Moody revealed that the track team lacked participants that year; hence, the “recruitment” of the black athletes. Moody ran that year and enjoyed much success. He stated, “I was probably actually better at track than I was at basketball.”69 However, he chose not to return to track the following year based on principle.70
While white athletes were often unaware of the problems facing black athletes, they also had a tendency to treat their teammates poorly. On a cold January morning, a black basketball player named Charley Griffin’s car broke down. This meant that his fellow black teammates, Bruce Moody and Chuck Gordon, had no way to get to practice which was seven blocks away. The white players had cars, but alleged that their cars were full; therefore, their black teammates had to hike to practice in the cold until Griffin’s car was repaired. Moody said, “After a week or two, something must have been said to the Coach because they finally offered us a ride when they saw us walking to practice.” However, when asked if they wanted a ride to practice a few weeks later, Moody replied for all the guys with a resonating, “NO!” From Moody’s perspective the offer of a ride was a slap in the face. Moody said, “I was young, walking didn’t bother me, I am an athlete, but it was the idea that they would ignore us and then offer us a ride two weeks later that made me upset.”71 This incident highlights the differences between the experiences of black and white athletes.
Even as late as the beginning of the 1980s, black students’ needs were being ignored. Carl Lee, who played football at Marshall from 1979 to 1983, recalled one of his trips to the bookstore: “There were no black authors, no books related to African-American subjects, and there weren’t any black products.” When he asked the clerk for some hair grease, she handed him a case of “Dippity Do,” a white hair care product. Pressing the issue, Lee asked why products for blacks were not available. Her answer was, “We don’t make money on those products.”72 Lee’s response was, “it shouldn’t matter, they were non-profit.”73
On a more serious note, racism was still prominent on campus during the decade of the 1980s. Carl Lee revealed that during his junior year Marshall was set to have a Dixie-themed homecoming called “Deep Dark South.” The participants would use “black face,” a type of theatrical makeup usually used by white people to illustrate an exaggerated black stereotype. The black football players were adamant in their opposition to this theme. Carl Lee stated that, “I would not go out and represent Marshall University and then be mocked at halftime.” He felt that there was a lack of accountability on Marshall’s campus for this sort of unchecked behavior on the University’s behalf.74
Black athletes faced adverse conditions during the integration of Marshall, yet strove to become accomplished members of society. Hal Greer starred on ten NBA All-Star teams and scored over 20,000 points in his career.75 Moody became a high school principal in Harlem, New York, and Beverly Duckwyler was an educator in the Paducah County, Kentucky school system for several decades. Larry Jarrett was a professor of Geography at Marshall University, while Phil Carter is teaching at Marshall and his social impact is still felt today. Carl Lee, one of the 50 greatest all-time Minnesota Vikings players, is now employed by West Virginia State University. These pioneers, among countless others who fought the battle for integration on the playing field alongside them, have paved the way for current minority athletes. Although racial prejudice has not been fully eradicated, these distinguished athletes and their supporters, have made Marshall a more accepting and bearable climate.
1 Originally Marshall College.
2 Future references to this book will be shortened to An Institution Comes of Age.
3 Charles Moffat, Marshall University: An Institution Comes of Age 1837-1980 (Huntington, WV: Marshall University Alumni Association, 1981), 194.
4 Dr. Stewart H. Smith to John W. Davis, June 23, 1955. Papers of President Stewart Smith.
5 Richard Lee Rockwell, “Letters to the Editor,” Parthenon, February 15, 1967.
6 Lloyd Lewis, “Student Group Meets with Dr. Smith,” Parthenon, February 22, 1967.
7 Ernie Salvatore, “Green Should Be Tied For Lead,” Huntington Herald-Advertiser, February 5, 1967.
8 George Reger, Integration and Athletics: Integrating the Marshall University Basketball Program (master’s thesis, Marshall University 1996), 103.
9 “Student Group Meets with Dr. Smith,” Parthenon, February 22, 1967.
10 “The South’s Gonna Rise Again,” Parthenon, May 2, 1962.
11 “Student Group Meets with Dr. Smith,” Parthenon, February 22, 1967.
12 Bruce Moody, interview by the author, Huntington, WV, March 2, 2011.
13 Moffat, Marshall University: An Institution Comes of Age 1837-1980, 195.
14 Katura Carey, "Letters to the Editor." Parthenon, February 10, 1967.
15 "Dixie," NPR, November 11 2002, http://www.npr.org/programs/morning/features/patc/dixie/index.html.
16 “Student Group Meets with Dr. Smith,” Parthenon, February 22, 1967.
17 Moffat, Marshall University: An Institution Comes of Age 1837-1980, 197.
18 Bruce Moody “Negro Student Looks At Discrimination,” Parthenon, May 11, 1962.
19 The Black Legends Hall of Fame.
20 One of the founders of The Black Legends. Graduated in 1962.
21 Stacey McKenzie, "Bitter to sweet memories." Herald-Dispatch, April 15, 1996.
22 Many of the black athletes interviewed expressed that at the time of their graduation they would never return to Marshall. Some of them did return decades later after the constant urging by Phil Carter.
23 Slash was the first black superintendent of a West Virginia school system.
24 “Student Group Meets with Dr. Smith,” The Parthenon, February 22, 1967.
25 These teammates were white.
26 Bruce Moody, Interview by the author, tape recording, Huntington, WV, March 2, 2011.
27 Bruce Thompson, An Appeal For Racial Justice: The Civic Interest Progressives’ Confrontation with Huntington, West Virginia, and Marshall University, 1963-1965, (masters thesis, Marshall University 1986), 121.
28 Larry Jarrett, interview by the author, Huntington, WV, March 18, 2011.
29 Dr. Cook, Professor Gerald Coomer , and Professor Simon Perry.
30 Bruce Moody, “Negro Student Looks At Discrimination,” Parthenon, May 11, 1962.
31 Bruce Moody, interview by the author, Huntington, WV, March 2, 2011.
32 He wanted to view his accomplishments.
33 Bruce Moody, interview by the author, tape recording, Huntington, WV, March 2, 2011.
34 Cam Henderson offered him the scholarship in 1954.
35 Salvatore, "Hurryin' Hal," Huntington Quarterly Summer 1994, 30.
36 Salvatore, “New page added to Greer chapter,” Herald-Dispatch, January 14, 1990.
37 Salvatore, “Fans Give Hal, Jack Sendoff,” Huntington Advertiser February 25, 1958.
38 Salvatore, "Hurryin' Hal," Huntington Quarterly Summer 1994, 31.
40 Marshall College Press and Radio Guide 1956-57, Huntington, WV, 1956.
41 Salvatore, "Hurryin' Hal," Huntington Quarterly Summer 1994, 30.
42 Salvatore, "Fans Give Hal, Jack Sendoff," The Advertiser: Sports, Feb. 25, 1958
43 McKenzie, "Phil Carter: a product of the old Marshall," Herald-Dispatch April 15, 1996.
44 Phil Carter, interview by the author, March 17, 2011.
45 He was a conference leader in many statistical categories in the Mid-American Conference.
46 Thompson, An Appeal For Racial Justice: The Civic Interest Progressives’ Confrontation with Huntington, West Virginia, and Marshall University, 1963-1965. (masters thesis, Marshall University 1986) 1.
47 He was elected four times as the Huntington Chapter President of the NAACP.
48 "From Whence We Came Past Honorees," West Virginia State University, 2004, http://www.wva.state.wv.us/civilrights/pasthonorees.htm.
49 Bruce Moody, interview by the author, March 2, 2011.
50 Bruce Moody, interview by the author, March 2, 2011; Phil Carter, interview by the author March 17, 2011.
51 Phil Carter, interview by the author, March 17, 2011
52 Thompson, An Appeal For Racial Justice: The Civic Interest Progressives’ Confrontation with Huntington, West Virginia, and Marshall University, 1963-1965. (masters thesis, Marshall University 1986) 56-87.
53 Memphis Tennessee Garrison, Ancella R. Bickley, and Lynda Ann Ewen. Memphis Tennessee Garrison: The remarkable story of a Black Appalachian woman. Athens: Ohio University Press, 2001, 186.
54 He was the first Division 1 black basketball player arrested for attempting to eat at a “whites-only” restaurant.
55 McKenzie, "Bitter to sweet memories." Herald-Dispatch, April 15, 1996.
56 John Milhoan, “Greer Victim of racism, ex-MU teammate recalls,” Herald-Dispatch, April 28, 1996.
57 He played one year of baseball at Marshall.
58 Chuck Landon, “King’s day honor for court king” Charleston Daily Mail, Jan. 16, 1990.
59 Reger, Integration and Athletics: Integrating the Marshall University Basketball Program, 1954-1959. Marshall University, Huntington, WV, 1996. 105.
60 Bruce Moody, interview by the author, March 2, 2011.
61 Reger, Integration and Athletics: Integrating the Marshall University Basketball Program, 1954-1959. Marshall University, Huntington, WV, 1996. 104.
62 Beverly Duckwyler, interview by the author, tape recording, Huntington, WV, February 17, 2011.
63 Salvatore, “Sportin’ Life” (Huntington: The Herald-Dispatch, 1998), 46.
64 Bruce Moody, interview by the author, March 2, 2011.
65 Jack Olsen, “The Black Athlete: Part 1” Sports Illustrated, July 1, 1968.
66 These positions included the pitcher, catcher, or quarterback.
67 Phil Carter, interview by the author, Huntington, WV, March 17, 2011;Larry Jarrett, interview by the author, Huntington, WV, 18 March 2011.
68 Phil Carter, interview by the author, Huntington, WV, March 17, 2011.
69 Bruce Moody, interview by the author, March 2, 2011.
70The call to all black athletes wasn’t given the following year because the track team had enough numbers.
71 Bruce Moody, interview by the author, March 2, 2011.
72 Carl Lee, interview by the author, February 15 2011.
73 Lee didn’t feel as if she was trying to be racially unjust, but that it was simply ignorance of specific products for black students’ needs.
74 Carl Lee, interview by the author, February 15 2011.
75 “NBA Encyclopedia Playoff Edition,” NBA, February 1, 2011, http://www.nba.com/history/players/greer_bio.html