news
MURC
11/5/2013
HUNTINGTON, W.Va. – Dr. Zijian Xie, whose laboratory is internationally recognized for its groundbreaking work to understand the behavior of cellular pathways and their relationship to cancer, renal disease and cardiac failure, has been named the director of the Marshall Institute for Interdisciplinary Research. Xie comes to Marshall from the faculty of the University of Toledo’s College of Medicine, where he was a professor of physiology, pharmacology and medicine, and served as the co-director of the M.D./Ph.D. program. He was chosen to lead MIIR through a national search. “I am thrilled Dr. Xie has agreed to take on this vitally important leadership role at MIIR,” said Marshall University President Stephen J. Kopp. “He is a brilliant scientist with a track record of patented discoveries and successful research collaborations with clinical scientists, including those at our own Joan C. Edwards School of Medicine. He has demonstrated the rare ability to bring together interdisciplinary teams and resources to address compelling research questions, while blending them with his considerable interpersonal skills to produce high-level results. These attributes make him the ideal person to take our institute to the next level.” MIIR was established five years ago as Marshall University’s key vehicle to advancing regional economic development through entrepreneurship and commercialization of scientific discoveries. Scientists at the institute are developing a focused program of biotechnology research dedicated to producing patentable scientific breakthroughs and creating new businesses based on those discoveries. In addition to conducting his own active research program at MIIR, Xie will be responsible for adding to the team of interdisciplinary researchers who comprise the core of the institute and for fostering collaborations with other scientists at Marshall. “I was attracted to Marshall by MIIR’s business orientation,” said Xie. “I’ve been doing research for a long time and President Kopp’s vision for the institute is compelling: How do we really promote research from our labs and translate it into something tangible that will help people down the road? By all working together, I think we can build this institute and integrate research programs at Marshall into a much larger enterprise that will help improve human health, promote international exchange and stimulate economic development in the region.” A molecular biologist/pharmacologist, Xie has focused his research for nearly 30 years on an enzyme commonly referred to as the “sodium-potassium pump” because it controls the levels of potassium and sodium entering and exiting cells. This pumping process is vital to transporting essential nutrients like glucose and amino acids into cells and maintaining the electrical charge within cells, which is particularly important in controlling normal functions in nerves and muscles, as well as in the kidney and heart. Xie’s research shows that in addition to its critical pumping function, which was discovered by scientists in the 1950s, this “pump” plays a second, distinct role by directing a variety of cellular processes in the heart, kidneys and other tissues. Through their studies to learn more about the molecular mechanisms by which this cellular signaling occurs, Xie and his colleagues are working to develop new treatments for cancer, heart and kidney disease. Xie holds international patents and patent applications on seven medical inventions resulting from his research. He has served as principal investigator, project leader or co-investigator on National Institutes of Health-funded projects totaling more than $10 million, and has established active international collaborations with total funding of more than $1 million. He has been involved with the creation of two spin-off companies from his research. Marshall’s Vice President for Research Dr. John M. Maher has been serving as MIIR’s interim director since the institute’s founding director Dr. Eric Kmiec left in August 2011. Maher said he is pleased at Xie’s selection. “Dr. Xie will be a wonderful addition to the Marshall research community,” said Maher. “He embraces the entrepreneurial focus of MIIR. He brings to the institute significant external funding for his own research and understands the institute’s commercial and economic development goals. “In addition, his existing research partnerships with scientists at our medical school and elsewhere are testament to his commitment to conducting collaborative translational research, where laboratory discoveries are quickly moved to clinical trials and then to treatments for patients.” Maher added that there is a nice synergy between Xie’s work and the research already in progress at MIIR. “The research group at MIIR has been exploring the biomedical applications of nanofiber scaffolds. Their work has implications in the development of techniques to treat conditions like heart attacks, and for tendon repair and skin grafts, so there is a natural fit there, too,” he said. “I look forward to watching the institute grow and prosper under his leadership.” Research in Xie’s laboratory is currently supported through funding from the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and Youbo Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd. He is the author or co-author of more than 100 articles published in scientific journals, has authored a number of book chapters and has been invited to give numerous presentations as part of national and international conferences, symposia, seminars and visiting professorships. He serves as a regular member of NIH study sections and has chaired and co-organized several international symposia. Xie earned a bachelor’s degree from the Nanjing College of Pharmacy in Nanjing, China, in 1982. He went on to complete a master’s degree in toxicology at the Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences in Beijing in 1984 and a doctorate in pharmacology at the Medical College of Ohio (now University of Toledo) in 1990. He was a post-doctoral fellow at the Medical College of Ohio from 1990-91 and joined the institution’s faculty in 1991 as an instructor of pharmacology and therapeutics. He advanced steadily, becoming a research assistant professor in 1992, an assistant professor in 1996 and an associate professor in 2000. He was named full professor with tenure in 2005. While at Toledo, he mentored dozens of graduate and post-doctoral students and assistant professors. More than 10 of his trainees have established independent laboratories in the U.S. and abroad. Xie, who begins his new duties at MIIR this week, will have a joint appointment with Marshall’s Joan C. Edwards School of Medicine. About MIIR Since its founding in 2008, MIIR has grown to include three researchers in addition to the new director, Dr. Zijian Xie. Scientific activity at the institute has resulted in grants from federal, commercial and private sources, and four patents/patent applications/invention disclosures. Collaborations with private industry have resulted in sponsored projects with global pharmaceutical company Pfizer and major diagnostics company IDT. In addition, MIIR scientists are collaborating with other researchers at Marshall, including those working in the Center for Diagnostic Nanosystems and at the Joan C. Edwards School of Medicine. The business plan for MIIR calls for the institute to be a self-sustaining enterprise supported by grants and a $36 million endowment created from public and private sources. An economic impact study by Marshall’s Center for Business and Economic Research estimated that once the endowment is fully funded, MIIR will create thousands of new jobs and generate millions of dollars in tax revenues over 20 years. The endowment, which currently stands at $6 million, has been funded through both private donations and matching state funds made possible by the “Bucks for Brains” West Virginia Research Trust Fund. Fundraising efforts to increase the endowment are ongoing. At its current level, the MIIR endowment provides continuing support for two endowed scientists, one of whom—Dr. Jingwei Xie (no relation)—has been working at the institute since January 2011. Dr. Zijian Xie is the second endowed scientist. For more information about MIIR, visit www.marshall.edu/miir.
http://www.marshall.edu/murc/dr-zijian-xie-named-director-of-marshall-institute-for-interdisciplinary-research/
Herald Dispatch
6/1/2013
West Virginia's potential to grow investment, jobs and wealth as a result of the Marcellus Shale is the focus of a new report from Marshall University's Center for Business and Economic Research. Vision Shared, a nonprofit organization that specializes in economic and community development, commissioned the study because it wants people from outside the natural gas industry to educate themselves about the issue. "Those in the industry will read this report and say, 'We already know all of this,' " said Steve White, a Vision Shared board member and executive director of the Affiliated Construction Trades, which represents about 20,000 union workers in West Virginia. "We believe those who are not will find it very informative." White said the report sidesteps issues such as horizontal drilling and ethane crackers and instead focuses on the potential impact of the Marcellus Shale on the future of manufacturing, vehicle fuel and electricity generation. It also focuses on policies and incentives for maximizing the economic benefits of shale gas in the state. "To reap the greatest possible return, this necessarily includes activities beyond drilling, hydraulic fracturing and cracking," the report said. "Maximizing the potential yields from the shale gas industry in West Virginia will not occur without significant planning and having forward-looking policies in place in advance of need while providing responsive reaction to opportunities and threats." A theme throughout the report is how West Virginia can gain the most economic benefit by building the capacity to process natural gas and natural gas liquids in the state. "If West Virginia and the broader region, that also includes the similarly extensive Utica Shale, are able to grow regional supply of these value-added products, more of the economic benefits of the resource can be retained in the region," according to the report. White said he likens the opportunities that come with shale gas to the timber industry. "If you're harvesting timber, it makes sense to look at building a saw mill, which will lead to businesses that will build cabinets and furniture," he said. "It's the same thing with natural gas. If all we become is a resource colony, we're not capturing the total benefit." To read the report in its entirety, visit www.visionshared.com/shale.
http://www.herald-dispatch.com/news/briefs/x1724821738/Report-outlines-strategies-to-maximize-economic-impact-of-Marcellus-Shale

5/22/2013
Join us for this free, innovative conference to learn more about commercial, residential and industrial energy efficiency initiatives both locally and nationally. Speakers during this one day conference include subject matter experts from various state and government agencies, private agencies and academic institutions. Free lunch is provided!
http://events.r20.constantcontact.com/register/event?llr=td9kyekab&oeidk=a07e754e0725293a90e
Charleston Daily Mail
5/12/2013
The Center for Business and Economic Research at Marshall University has released an updated version of its West Virginia Stock Index. The index is published weekly on the center's website. The WV Stock Index began on Jan. 5, 2004 and tracks the share price of the largest publicly traded companies that operate in West Virginia, weighted by employment. The resulting index is compared to the Dow Jones Industrial Average for the same time period. The original index, created by researcher Christine Risch, contained 20 companies that employed over 50,000 West Virginians. The updated index has increased in scope, adding five companies and now accounts for 60,000 employed West Virginians. This increase has diversified the industries represented. Economics and International Business major Noelle Kivett updated the index as part of her final undergraduate research project at CBER. The Companies included in the index by level of employment are Wal-Mart, Alpha Natural Resources, Kroger, CONSOL Energy, Patriot Coal Corporation, Lowe's Companies, Mylan Incorporated, American Electric Power, El DuPont de Nemours, Sears Holdings Corporation, Pilgrim's Pride Corporation, First Energy, CSX Corporation, Rite Aid Corporation, Bob Evans Farms, Frontier Telecommunications, Alliant Techsystems, MTR Gaming, Dollar General, Darden Restaurants, BB&T, Dominion Transmission Incorporated, Cracker Barrel Old Country Store, Toyota Motor Manufacturing, and Quad Graphics. For more information about this index, contact Christine Risch at 304-696-6251 or visit www.marshall.edu/cber.
http://www.charlestondailymail.com/Business/201305120018
Herald-Dispatch
5/1/2013
West Virginia's potential to grow investment, jobs and wealth as a result of the Marcellus Shale is the focus of a new report from Marshall University's Center for Business and Economic Research. Vision Shared, a nonprofit organization that specializes in economic and community development, commissioned the study because it wants people from outside the natural gas industry to educate themselves about the issue. "Those in the industry will read this report and say, 'We already know all of this,' " said Steve White, a Vision Shared board member and executive director of the Affiliated Construction Trades, which represents about 20,000 union workers in West Virginia. "We believe those who are not will find it very informative." White said the report sidesteps issues such as horizontal drilling and ethane crackers and instead focuses on the potential impact of the Marcellus Shale on the future of manufacturing, vehicle fuel and electricity generation. It also focuses on policies and incentives for maximizing the economic benefits of shale gas in the state. "To reap the greatest possible return, this necessarily includes activities beyond drilling, hydraulic fracturing and cracking," the report said. "Maximizing the potential yields from the shale gas industry in West Virginia will not occur without significant planning and having forward-looking policies in place in advance of need while providing responsive reaction to opportunities and threats." A theme throughout the report is how West Virginia can gain the most economic benefit by building the capacity to process natural gas and natural gas liquids in the state. "If West Virginia and the broader region, that also includes the similarly extensive Utica Shale, are able to grow regional supply of these value-added products, more of the economic benefits of the resource can be retained in the region," according to the report. White said he likens the opportunities that come with shale gas to the timber industry. "If you're harvesting timber, it makes sense to look at building a saw mill, which will lead to businesses that will build cabinets and furniture," he said. "It's the same thing with natural gas. If all we become is a resource colony, we're not capturing the total benefit." To read the report in its entirety, visit www.visionshared.com/shale.
http://www.herald-dispatch.com/news/briefs/x1724821738/Report-outlines-strategies-to-maximize-economic-impact-of-Marcellus-Shale
Marcellus Drilling News
5/1/2013
The West Virginia non-profit Vision Shared recently commissioned (paid for) the Marshall University Center for Business and Economic Research to provide a report on the state’s ability to grow investment, jobs, and wealth as a result of the abundant Marcellus and Utica Shale natural gas sitting underneath much of the state. Vision Shared believes there is great potential for all West Virginians to benefit from Marcellus and Utica Shale resources, but also recognizes opportunity does not equal guarantee. Vision Shared thinks it’s in the best interest of the state to understand the full potential of these resources and intentionally strive to maximize the benefits for all residents.
http://marcellusdrilling.com/2013/05/new-report-leveraging-natural-gas-opportunities-in-wv/
Charleston Gazette
5/1/2013
CHARLESTON, W.Va. -- During the last legislative session, the bill that took up the most time and generated the most controversy was Gov. Tomblin's education bill. But to the credit of all parties, one key provision of the bill wasn't controversial at all. It was probably the best part, and although it hasn't received a whole lot of attention, its effects will be felt for years to come. I'm talking about a major expansion of early childhood education, an area in which West Virginia has already made significant progress. The bill takes it to a new level by requiring county school boards to offer full-day programs for 4-year-olds five days a week by school year 2016-2017. Since then, the governor has appointed an Early Childhood Planning Task Force to look for ways of improving health, development and education readiness of children from birth to age 5. Why is that a big deal? According to the Center for American Progress, "Studies show that high-quality early childhood education can significantly improve a child's preliteracy, prewriting, and premath skills. Children in Tennessee's state-funded pre-K program, for example, saw a 75 percent improvement in letter-word identification, a 152 percent improvement in oral comprehension, a 176 percent improvement in picture vocabulary and a 63 percent improvement in quantitative concepts, compared to children not in pre-K." The New York Times reports that studies by James Heckman, an economist and Nobel laureate who specializes in the economics of human development, indicate that "investment in early education of disadvantaged children pays extremely high returns down the road. It improves not only their cognitive abilities but also crucial behavior traits like sociability, motivation and self-esteem. Studies that have followed children through their adult lives confirm enormous payoffs for these investments, whether measured in improved success in college, higher income or even lower incarceration rates." Studies conducted for the Minneapolis Federal Reserve Bank by economists R. Grunewald and A. Rolnick compared the economic development payoff for government subsidies for private businesses unfavorably with investments in children. They noted that "One of the most productive investments that is rarely viewed as economic development is early childhood development (ECD)." In 2005, Marshall University's Center for Business and Economic Research investigated the impact of early childhood education and found a fourfold positive impact. First, the children benefit, "increasing their capacity to be more productive workers and citizens." Second, these programs allow parents and caregivers to work and boost income. Third, these programs themselves create jobs and generate economic activity. Finally, "early childhood development produces returns on investment to public and private money which is in excess of returns of other economic development programs." This kind of investment can help address two goals that don't always go hand in hand: increasing economic development while also reducing inequality. Early investment in children can reduce the impact of what Heckman calls the lottery of birth, i.e. the huge and growing degree to which parents' socio-economic status predicts that of their children. Since inequality begins very early in life, its impact can be reduced by intervening there as well. He concludes: "The logic is quite clear from an economic standpoint. We can invest early to close disparities and prevent achievement gaps, or we can pay to remediate disparities when they are harder and more expensive to close. Either way we are going to pay...But, there is an important difference between the two approaches. Investing early allows us to shape the future; investing later chains us to fixing the missed opportunities of the past. "Controlling our destiny is more in keeping with the American spirit." So, congratulations, West Virginia, for getting something else right. That's not bad for a 150-year-old. Wilson, director of the American Friends Service Committee's West Virginia Economic Justice Project, is a Gazette contributing columnist.
http://www.wvgazette.com/Opinion/OpEdCommentaries/201305170123?display=print
WV Research
4/1/2013
Huntington, WV – The Center for Business and Economic Research (CBER) at Marshall University, in conjunction with the West Virginia Division of Energy and the U.S. Department of Energy, will host a free, innovative energy efficiency conference Wednesday, May 22, at the Marshall University Foundation Hall (519 John Marshall Drive, Huntington, WV). The one-day conference, Energy Efficiency in West Virginia: Projects and Prospects, offers participants the opportunity to learn more about commercial, residential and industrial energy efficiency initiatives both locally and nationally. “This will be the first multi-sector energy efficiency event in West Virginia in that it will include presentations from industrial, commercial and residential energy efficiency experts,” Jeff Herholdt, Director of the West Virginia Division of Energy, said. Speakers during this one day conference include subject matter experts from various state and government agencies, private agencies and academic institutions. Free lunch will be provided. Registration is highly recommended and available by visiting www.marshall.edu/cber. About CBER: The Center for Business and Economic Research is now a standalone institution. Standing as a research arm of Marshall University, the CBER’s mission is to conduct business and economic research pertinent to the West Virginia and tri-state regional economies; provide related research and service support to College faculty; support University economic development and service efforts; integrate with the business community through direct faculty involvement in research related to the West Virginia and tri-state economies; provide business and economic development support to private and public sector constituencies; disseminate information, research findings, and data; and encourage and support faculty in their intellectual pursuits and contributions.
http://www.wvresearch.org/archives/6880
Charleston Gazette
3/1/2013
West Virginia is taking steps forward on two major issues: Prison overcrowding and juvenile justice reform. But important next steps should be taken. Some existing juvenile incarceration facilities should be converted into beds for adult offenders, and the state should place an expanded emphasis on early childhood and Pre-K education. Gov. Tomblin's prison overcrowding and justice reinvestment bill (SB 371) deserves quick consideration and passage by the House as it received in the Senate. Its provisions will require more screening and services for those convicted and expedited release with supervision for those who committed non-violent crimes. Both steps will reduce the need for additional housing. West Virginia Kids Count noted in the past 13 years that West Virginia has seen juvenile incarceration increase by 60 percent, one of just five states to see an increase. The Division of Juvenile Services has taken overdue action to convert the Industrial Home for Youth into an adult facility providing up to 300 beds. Significant research supports the closing of even more juvenile detention facilities. In a report issued by Marshall University's Center for Business and Economic Research, a compilation of research showing wholesale incarceration of juvenile offenders is a counterproductive public policy, it notes: • States needlessly spend billions of dollars a year incarcerating nonviolent youth. • States are realigning fiscal resources away from ineffective and expensive state institutions and toward more effective community-based services. • Holding more youth in secure juvenile facilities can lead to costly litigation for states. • Imprisoning youth can have severe detrimental effects on youth, the long-term economic productivity and economic health of communities. • Policies that lock up more youth do not necessarily improve public safety. • Community-based programs increase public safety. • Community-based programs for youth are more cost effective than incarceration. Under the leadership of Justice Margaret Workman, the Adjudicated Juvenile Rehabilitation Review Commission has embraced the entire field of juvenile justice and will report to the Legislature and governor.Nevertheless, the biggest payoff in reducing juvenile delinquency is to place an emphasis on early child care and Pre-K education. Over the past few years, the Center for Business and Economic Research has issued a series of reports providing strong evidence that these programs result in: • Higher school completion rates • Reduced juvenile delinquency • Declines in teen pregnancy • Greater lifetime earnings • Healthier lifestyles • Less drug and substance abuse Based on the work of Nobel Prize-winning economist James Heckman, the center found a $5.20 return for every state dollar invested in these programs. West Virginia was one of the first states to provide for voluntary universal Pre-K programs for 4-year-old and some 3-year-old students and now ranks fifth in the nation for access for 4-year-olds. Every county now has Pre-K programs, and 70 percent of those eligible are enrolled moving toward the goal of 80 percent. An additional $17 million is in the governor's budget for Pre-K. Access in rural areas, however, remains a problem, limiting enrollment. The West Virginia picture for early child care programs is not as optimistic. Few of the state's child care facilities meet national accreditation standards. The cost of child care is so high that low- and middle-income workers are unable to participate. Rural areas are particularly lacking in facilities. While the state has initiated a Quality Rating and Improvement Program, it is woefully under-funded to raise standards and increase access. The problems of prison overcrowding and juvenile delinquency should be solved together. Converting juvenile facilities for adult use, providing community-based treatment, and early release for non-violent offenders helps with the immediate problem. Investing in early childhood and Pre-K provides a longer-term answer. Kent is Lewis Distinguished Professor of Business at Marshall University.
http://www.sundaygazettemail.com/Opinion/OpEdCommentaries/201303280071
Herald Dispatch
3/1/2013
HUNTINGTON -- The Center for Business and Economic Research at Marshall University released a white paper Friday that calls the state's juvenile incarceration program ineffective, while also presenting best practices that have been shown to decrease recidivism and increase educational attainment. Researchers who compiled the report called "Incarceration of Juveniles in West Virginia" found that West Virginia is bucking the trend, in the wrong direction, on juvenile incarcerations. The Mountain State's rate of incarceration of youth increased by 60 percent from 1997 to 2010, based on a one-day snapshot. During that same time, all of West Virginia's border states saw decreases by a minimum of 20 percent. Only Pennsylvania saw an increase, which was 7 percent. The report noted that a small number of youthful offenders do pose a serious threat to the public and should be confined. However, incarcerating a broader group of youth wastes taxpayer dollars, "harms the well-being and dampens the future prospects of troubled and law-breaking youth." The report also suggests that by taking the recommended steps to provide alternative rehabilitation programs and changing other policies, the overcrowding problem for adults in prison could also be helped. "In the short-to medium-term, facilities now dedicated to juvenile detention could be closed and reopened for the adult population," states the report, completed by Calvin A. Kent, Kent N. Sowards and Jennifer L. Price. "This assumes that appropriate alternatives to youth incarceration exist. The longer-term solution is to expand childcare and Pre-K education programs as these have a positive effect on reducing the incidence of juvenile delinquency and perhaps recidivism." By coincidence, one step intended to improve care of juvenile offenders was taken Friday when state officials announced that the West Virginia Industrial Home for Youth in Salem -- the only maximum-security juvenile prison -- will close and be converted to a mid-level adult prison. Circuit Judge Omar Aboulhosn has condemned prison-like conditions at the facility, which houses juveniles convicted of murder and violent crime. Under the plan, the 49 juveniles now in Salem's main building would move to other agency-run facilities. That would likely fill up remaining beds at those facilities, said Military Affairs and Public Safety Secretary Joe Thornton, whose department includes Juvenile Services as well as the Division of Corrections and the regional jails. Juveniles ranging from ages 12 to 20 are now at Salem. Individuals convicted of juvenile offenses can be in juvenile custody until their 21st birthday. "A 12-year-old should never be housed with a 20-year-old," Thornton said. "I don't care how mature you are as a 12-year-old, it's just not a good setting." Officials then hope to transfer at least 300 minimum- to medium-security adult inmates who have been sentenced to prison but are serving their sentences in regional jails. West Virginia's prisons are at capacity, while the 10 regional jails are either full or have more inmates than they were designed to hold. Corrections Commissioner Jim Rubenstein told The Associated Press that his agency hoped to convert Salem by July 1, and expected needing few upgrades. But officials must still find a suitable facility for the 23 juvenile sex offenders housed in a separate building on the Salem campus. Stephanie Bond, the new acting director of Juvenile Services, told the AP that these offenders require a secure setting that can offer rehabilitation along with conditions and programs appropriate for juveniles. Rubenstein said that building at Salem, the Dr. Harriet B. Jones Treatment Center, appears the ideal site for a long-term, in-patient substance abuse program for adults. In its report, the Center for Business and Economic Research also cited the effectiveness of quality Pre-K programs, while also complimenting Gov. Earl Ray Tomblin's bill this session to increase funding for expanding Pre-K programs. In states that have taken steps to increase access to effective early childhood programs, the high school completion rate has increased, there has been a decline in teen pregnancy and a reduction in juvenile delinquency. The report also found that juvenile facilities are not cost-effective in terms of housing and rehabilitation for non-violent juvenile offenders, while community-based programs are shown to provide better outcomes and cost less without compromising public safety. In fact, the report found that "imprisoning youth can have severe detrimental effects on youth, the long-term economic productivity and economic health of communities." Among the recommendations in the report: confine only those who have committed serious offenses; create non-residential alternatives that focus on reducing truancy, expanding vocational training and providing counseling for drug abuse and mental health services; improve state funding and re-allocate current allocations to community-based facilities rather than state confinement; and reduce the size of juvenile correctional facilities, with a goal of no more than 50 at any facility.
http://www.herald-dispatch.com/news/x1272697795/Treatment-of-young-offenders-criticized
The State Journal
3/1/2013
The same day the Division of Juvenile Services announced its intention to close the Industrial Home for Youth as a juvenile facility and move adults into the institution, Marshall University's Center for Business and Economic Research released a white paper on the incarceration of juveniles. The paper, released March 15, said there should be other methods besides juvenile incarceration while also considering overcrowding in adult prisons. Short- to medium-term juvenile facilities, the paper continues, could be reopened as adult facilities, such as the DJS' intention in the Industrial Home's case. Longer term goals, the paper states, would be to expand childcare and Pre-K education programs. According to the paper, this would have a positive effect in reducing instances of juvenile delinquency and recidivism. The paper says West Virginia is one of six states to experience an increase in its juvenile incarceration rate in the last 15 years. The majority of youth incarcerated, the paper continues, did not commit violent or major crimes. The paper also cited a study by the Anne E. Casey Foundation and released by West Virginia Kids Count, which found incarceration of juveniles over the last 15 years has decreased nationwide. However, this wasn't the case in West Virginia. In 1997, a one-day snapshot showed 399 juveniles incarcerated and 561 in 2010, for an increase of 60 percent. "Little comfort is found by viewing results in surrounding states all of whom except Pennsylvania experienced declines," the paper states. The paper said there are a few solutions that other states have implemented. One solution it offered was to only commit juveniles who have committed serious offenses. Another solution would be to create nonresidential alternatives and to improve state funding to community-based programs. As for long-term solutions, the paper states that officials could expand child care and Pre-K programs, saying these programs "have the highest payoff per dollar invested of any other youth and education programs." Right now, the paper continues, there are two problems with these programs — access and quality. Access can be limited by distance or even by a small number of available centers. The paper also cited Gov. Earl Ray Tomblin's proposed legislation to reorganize the juvenile justice program. "Those actions, if passed, will have positive effects on reducing the overcrowding of detention facilities," the paper states.
http://www.statejournal.com/story/21654564/marshall-university-report-juvenile-incarceration-counterproductive