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African Americans in the

LGBT Community

By Chuck Taver, Univ. of Delaware

     This list of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgendered people of African Descent was first developed in response to requests for names of lesbian,gay, bisexual, and transgender people to include in Black History Month 1994 celebrations. First, the people listed are of African descent. Second, unfortunately some members of the African American community have sought to disavow the contributions, identities, or worth of many of the people listed here.

     It was inspired by Mark Hertzog's "The Out List" which is also located in the Queer Resources Directory. This is an ongoing project.

     Terms such as Black History Month and people of African Descent are used because not all of the people listed here are American. The term African-American in this case is therefore incorrect.

     The list is in alphabetical order by last name. A key and reference list are included. Many of those listed are famous, while others are less well known. An asterisk (*) indicates those still living. Due to the lack of confirming sources, many people known to be gay have been omitted. It is impossible for any list to encompass the history of a people. No list is complete. Important people are always missed. Significant contributions often go unnoticed, unreported and unrecorded. While honoring those on this list, take a moment to reflect on how you, too, are making history.

        The Black homosexual is hard pressed to 
	gain audience among his heterosexual brothers; 
	even if he is more talented, he is inhibited 
	by his silence or his admissions. This is what 
	the race has depended on in being able to erase 
	homosexuality from our recorded history.  
	The "chosen" history. But these sacred 
	constructions of silence are futile    
        exercises in denial. We will not go away with 
	our issues of sexuality.  We are coming home.

                                                --Essex Hemphill

*Indicates still living.

Compiled by Chuck Tarver at the University of Delaware, Please send corrections, additions and additional sources Chuck Tarver.

Adams, Gregory* Activist. Media director for the 1993 March on Washington for Lesbian, Gay and Bi Equal Rights and Liberation. Founder and executive director of the Bayard Rustin Alliance. [ BGLLF]

Adoma, Kofi* Activist, psychologist. Co-founder of Family, the Detroit Coalition of Black Lesbians and Gays, The James Baldwin-Pat Parker Society, The A. Lorde Collective, The Ujamaa Investment Club, and The Karibu House Planning Committee (An effort to start a LGBT people of color community center in Detroit). [NBLGLF]

Ailey, Alvin (1931-1989) Choreographer. Founder of the world renown Alvin Ailey dance troupe. Ailey combined African American movement with spirituals, jazz and contemporary music in a unique fashion. [EB]

Ajrian-Omari, Eden* Writer, poet, activist. Ajrian-Omari an artist, performer and fashion designer is currently a non-traditional student at the University of Oregon who serves on the President's Committee on Lesbian, Gay and Bisexual Concerns. [BGLLF]

Als, Hilton* Author The Women and contributor to The New Yorker since 1994. Als is a former staff writer for the Village Voice and editor at large at Vibe magazine. His work has appeared in The Nation and The New York Times. He has written film scripts for "Swoon" and "Looking for Langston," and most recently edited the catalogue for the Whitney Museum of American Art exhibition entitled "Black Male: Representations of Masculinity in Contemporary American Art," which ran from November, 1994, to March, 1995. [TW]

Arrington, Stanford S.* (1952) AIDS activist. Founder of CARE/Black Gays & Lesbians United Aganist AIDS, Denver Co. 1989. Colorado's first openly HIV positive, gay, African-American appointed to serve on the Colorado Governor's AIDS Advisory Council, 1990. Executive Director of Ohio's First Black AIDS Service Emporium (First B.A.S.E.) First B.A.S.E. provides case management, housing and HIV/AIDS education for gay men of color. [P]

Baker, Cornelius* AIDS Activist. President of the National Association of People With AIDS, NAPWA. [WB]

Baker, Josephine (1906-1975) Entertainer. Chorus girl who rose to fame in the Folies Bergere in Paris. Baker left home at age 13 to pursue a career in show business. Finding the United States difficult for black performers, she eventually settled in France. She and her husband had a large multiracial adopted family which she called her Rainbow Tribe. She was known to have had many same-sex affairs. [AA]

Baldwin, James (1924-1987) Writer and civil rights activist. Baldwin was not afraid to speak out on issues of oppression. A prolific writer his works included: "Go Tell It On The Mountain", "Giovanni's Room", "Another Country", and "The Fire Next Time." An expatriate, Baldwin urged American society to discard its myths. He felt the most destructive myth was "white superiority." [AA]

Banks Alicia* radio producer/host/columnist/author. Banks hosted AM and FM radio shows in Atlanta GA, the heart of the bible belt and is the only out homosexual in the nation known to have hosted a prime time commercial radio talk show. Her FM show mixed the musical and literary voices of Black women with musical, political and sexual diversity. She writes the weekly column, Eloquent Fury. Her pending book of radical essays "Outlook: The Book" will soon be scheduled for release. Banks is heard on KPFA (94.1FM) Berkeley, CA.[P]

Banneker, Benjamin (1731-1806) Mathematician. Self-taught mathematician, astronomer and inventor who designed Washington, DC. As a youth, Banneker invented a wooden clock that kept accurate time throughout his lifetime. Banneker also wrote essays on the evils of slavery. [AA]

Batts, Deborah* (1947) Judge. In June of 1994, Deborah Batts was sworn in as a Federal District Judge for Manhattan, becoming the nation's first openly lesbian African-American federal judge. Batts was on the faculty of Fordham University School of Law before her appointment by President Bill Clinton. [WB, FT]

Beam, Joseph (1954-1988) Writer and activist. Responsible for "In The Life", an anthology of work by black gay writers. Beam's personal papers have been donated to the Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture in Harlem, the nation's foremost collection of black history. Beam died of AIDS-related complications. [BLK, ITL]

Bean, Carl* Clergy, activist. Founder and Bishop of Unity Fellowship Church, which now has congregations in Los Angeles, Detroit, New York, Washington, DC and Philadelphia. Chief Executive Officer of Unity Fellowship Ministries, which includes the Minority AIDS Project (MAP). [BLK, OC]

Bell, Alan* Publisher. Heads firm that publishes five black lesbian and gay magazines including BLK The Black Lesbian and Gay Newsmagazine. He was editor and publisher of Gaysweek, New York's first mainstream weekly lesbian and gay newspaper. [P]

Bellinger, George Jr.* (1955) AIDS activist. Bellinger has been active in developing strategies to address the HIV/AIDS concerns of gay men of color, adolescents, substance abusers and women. [BGLLF]

Birtha, Becky * (1948) Writer. Author of several books of poems and short stories including "Lover's Choice" and "For Nights Like This One: Stories of Loving Women." [BLK, HG]

Blackberri* (1945) Musician, actor, activist. Born Charles Timothy Ashmore, Blackberri has appeared in "Word is Out" and "Tongues Untied." His music appears in "Tongues Untied" and "Looking for Langston." [BLK, ITL]

Boykin, Keith* (1965) Attorney, writer. Former Executive Director of the National Black Lesbian and Gay Leadership Forum. Author, One More River To Cross   Formerly with the Clinton Administration as Director of Specialty Press. Boykin was present when Clinton met with gay/lesbian leaders at the White House. [BLK]

Brinkley, Sidney* Journalist. Brinkley's work has appeared in the gay press throughout the country. He also headed Blacklight Press, which published "BGM." [BLK]

Brown, Ron* (1966) Choreographer. Heads the modern-dance troupe, Ron Brown/Evidence. Brown works with loosely narrative pieces. "Dirt Road" is among his works. [NYT]

Buckmire, Ron* (1968) Mathematician. Founded and runs the Queer Resources Directory, the largest collection of information on gay/lesbian/bisexual/transgender/AIDS available on the Internet. [OL]

Burke, Glenn (1952-1995) Athlete. Played professional baseball 1976-78 with the Dodgers. Later traded to the Oakland A's 1978-79. Burke hit .237 with two home runs, 38 R-B-I and 35 stolen bases in his 225 major league games. Burke is credited with giving baseball's first "high five". He played basketball in the 1986 Gay Games. The November 21, 1994, issue of "People" magazine updated his life and his struggle with AIDS. Burke died of AIDS-related complications May 30, 1995. His autobiography, "Out At Home" was co-written with Erik Sherman. [AA, BW]

Burrell, Walter Rico (1946-1990) Publicist. Burrell worked for Universal, Motown, 20th Century Fox, MGM and ABC. Wrote one of the earliest pieces by a black gay man chronicling his life with HIV/AIDS. He died of AIDS-related complications. [BB, BLK]

Carter, Mandy* Activist. Field Director for the National Black Lesbian and Gay Leadership Forum. Formerly, Public Policy Advocate for the Human Rights Campaign Fund (HRCF). Member of the executive committee of Stonewall 25 and a member of the Board of Directors of the Bayard Rustin Alliance. Carter works to counter the religious right's encroachment into communities of color. [BLK]

Chablis, Lady* Performer. "Benjamin Edward Knox", "Brenda Dale Knox", Chablis was featured in the John Berendt Novel Midnight in the Garden of Good and Evil and played herself in the movie version produced by Clint Eastwood. Chablis's autobiography is Hiding My Candy. [NBLGLF]

Cheeks, Rainey* Clergy. Pastor of Washington, DC Unity Fellowship Church. Founder and Program Director of Us Helping Us, People Into Living, Inc. Cheeks is a longtime AIDS survivor who has developed his own holistic treatments. [BLK, BGLLF]

Cheetam, Carlene* Activist. Co-chair of the DC Coalition of Black Lesbians, Gays and Bisexuals. One of the founders of Washington DC's Black Lesbian and Gay Pride Day. [BLK]

Clarke, Cheryl* Writer. Member of Kitchen Table Women of Color Press. Works include: "Narratives: Poems In the Tradition of Black Women" and "Lesbianism: An Act of Resistance," in "This Bridge Called My Back." [BLK, HG]

Cleveland, James (1931-1991) Clergy, gospel musician. Cleveland founded the Cornerstone Baptist Church in Los Angeles and served as its pastor. He is better know for his work as a gospel recording artist, receiving a posthumous fourth Grammy for the LP "Having Church." Toward the end of his life he moved beyond internalized homophobia to become active in the fight against AIDS. He died of AIDS-related complications. [BLK]

Cliff, Michelle* Writer. Jamaican author of "Claiming an Identity They Taught Me to Despise" and co-author of "Sinister Wisdom." [HG]

Clinton, Michelle T.* Poet. Clinton's publications include: "Good Sense and the Faithless" and "High Blood/Pressure." Her recordings include: "Black Angels" and "Blood as a Bright Color" on Freeways Records. [BGLLF]

Coleman, James Ellis Jr. (1946) Historian. Chief researcher, International Homophilics Institute (IHI) since 1966. Founder of IHI's Committee on Negro Homophilica,1967, now IHI's Africa Committee. Many of the historical names on the Blacklist were first brought to academic and public attention by Coleman. He is a descendent of Bishop Richard Allen (founder of the AME Church). Coleman was an early correspondent of Mattachine and the One Institute and IHI's Encyclopedia Homophilica which provided base data for the Encyclopedia of Homosexuality, 1990. In 1991 he served as Secretary of the American Historical Association Committee on Gay and Lesbian History . He has served as Editor of the Journal of Homophilics (1980-1990) and also as Editor of The Gay Review (1990-1991). [IHI]

Cooke, Welmore Alfred (1925-1992) Activist. W.W.II and Korean War veteran who was one of the founders of Black Lesbian and Gay Pride Day in Washington, DC. Cooke was president of Washington's Pinnacle Club and a charter member of Best Friends of Washington, a people of color AIDS support organization. He died of AIDS-related complications. [BLK]

Cooper, Mario* (1955) Attorney. Cooper served as the Convention Manager for the 1992 Democratic National Convention in New York. Cooper managed a staff of more than 200 and a budget of more than $12 million. He also served on President Carter's advance team and was responsible for the President's domestic and foreign travel. [BGLLF]

Corbin, Steven (?-1995) Novelist. Latest work is "Fragments that Remain." Previous work, "No Easy Place to Be." Corbin died of AIDS-related complications. [BLK]

Cox, Debra* Activist. Director of finance and administration for the National Gay and Lesbian Task Force (NGLTF). [WB]

Cullen, Countee (1903-1946) Writer. Harlem Renaissance poet known for "The Ballad of the Brown Girl", "Copper Sun" and "The Black Christ and Other Poems." Cullen married W.E.B. DuBois' daughter but two months later sailed off to Europe with Harold Jackman, his best man at the wedding. He is known for the verse questioning the pain of his existence. "I DOUBT not God is good, well meaning, kind,...Yet do I marvel at this curious thing: To make a poet black, and bid him sing!" [AA]

Curry, Dee* Transgender activist. Member of the Metropolitan Washiington HIV Planning and Prevention Council. An outspoken supporter of the needs of the underrepresented, she has worked hard for transgender inclusion. [NBLGLF]

Davidson, Jaye* Actor. British actor with lead role in the film, "The Crying Game." [OL]

Davis , Angela* (1944) Activist. Professor and activist Angela Davis made what many are interpreting as her coming out statement during her keynote address and press conference at the Sixth Annual BGLLF Conference (1993) in Long Beach, California. [BGLLF, WB]

Davis, Paul* AIDS Educator. Director of Education for the Minority AIDS Project of Los Angeles, (MAP). [AL]

Davis, Sharon* (transgendered author, activist) Author of "A Finer Specimen of Womanhood" A transsexual speaks out, New York, Vantage, 1985. As an African American woman who was once an African American man, Ms. Davis offers an enlightened and very personal account of her transition. She has appeared on television and radio to speak on transsexual issues, and is presently president of an AIDS outreach program.[RAD]

Dee, Roberta Angela* (transgendered author, activist) Dee has been writing about feminist, gender and racial issues since 1959. Author of several novellas on transsexual issues, including "The Business of Being a Woman." She writes regularly for TG Forum, and is founder of the Women on the Net (WON) website -- a resource for women of color.[P]

Delany, Samuel* (1942) Writer. Popular and critically acclaimed science fiction writer. Delany is one of the few African Americans writing in that genre. His works include: "The Jewels of Aptor" and "The Motion of Light in Water." [AA]

DeLoatch, Gary (1951-1992) Performer. Principal dancer with the Alvin Ailey Dance Theater. [BLK]

Dixon, Melvin (1950-1992) Writer, scholar. Author of two novels, "Vanishing Rooms" and "Trouble the Water" and a volume of poetry, "Change of Territory." He translated "The Collected Poems of Leopold Sedar Senghor." He died of AIDS-related complications. [BLK, OC]

Dodson, Owen Vincent (1914-1983) Educator and Writer. Drama director at Spellman 1938-1941. Instructor and director of drama at Atlanta University 1938-1942 and Hampton Institute 1941-1942. Chair of the Drama Department, Howard University 1960-69. In 1949 Dodson led the Howard University Players on the first State Department-sponsored European tour by a black theatre company. It was the first European tour by any American college group. Their success was influential in the establishment of the federally funded cultural exchange program. [TW]

Duplechan, Larry* Novelist. Author of a series of novels including: "Eight Days a Week", "Blackbird" and "Captain Swing." [BG, BLK]

Evans, Herbert (1951-1996) Clergy. Former Pastor MCC, Philadelphia. Serves on MCC Judicial Affairs Board and on the AIDS National Interfaith Network (ANIN), the Ecumenical AIDS Committee. Evans died of AIDS-related complications. [BGLLF, CO]

Farajaje-Jones, Elias* Theologian, activist. Farajaje-Jones, a bisexual of mixed heritage (African & Native American, Tsalagi/Cherokee), specialized in African Religions at the University of Bern in Switzerland. Formerly on the faculty of Howard University. [BGLLF]

Fashanu, Justin (1961 - 1998) Athlete. Nigerian born British soccer player who came out in the London tabloid "The Sun." The soccer star committed suicide in May of 1998. [AA, BLK, GT]

Frechette, David Warren (1948-1991) Journalist. His film, music and gay culture articles appeared in "Advocate", "Black Film Review", "City Sun" "Essence", and "Right On!" His chapbook, "Too Through" was anthologized in "Here To Dare" 10 Gay Black Poets." He died of AIDS-related complications. [BB, OC]

Furh, Gayle L.* Writer/storyteller. Founder and advisor of "Circle of One" theater arts performance troupe. [AL]

Garner, Darlene* Clergy. Pastor of MCC, NOVA. First African American Elder in the MCC Church. [BLK]

Gerald, Gilberto* Activist. Founder and director of the African American Gay and Lesbian Studies Center (AAGLSC). Fought with Immigration and Naturalization Service for four years to gain US citizenship finally admitting to his sexual orientation during the process. He was naturalized in 1982. [BLK, ITL]

Gomes, Peter J.* (1932) Clergy. Plummer Professor of Christian Morals and Minister in the Memorial Church at Harvard University. (Harvard University Chaplain). Author of The Good Book Gomes came out during a rally to support gay and lesbian students following a rash of homophobic incidents at Harvard. Gomes delivered sermons at Ronald Reagan and George Bush's inaugurations. [10%]

Gomez, Jewelle* Writer. Author of "The Lipstick Papers," co-editor of "Gap Tooth Girlfriends" and author of "The Gilda Stories" a collection of vampire tales. [HG]

Gonsalves, Roy (1960-1993) Writer. Gonsalves was the author of two books, "Evening Sunshine" and "Perversions." Founder and editor of the "Pyramid Poetry Periodical." He died of AIDS-related complications. [BLK]

Grant, Annie Lee Various. Grant passed as "Jim McHarris" for 20 years in order to get higher-paying "men's work." She worked as a short order cook, cab driver, gas station attendant, preacher and shipyard worker. Grant's secret was discovered when she was stopped for a traffic violation in 1954. [20]

Haizlip, Ellis B. (1930-1991) Producer. One of the first black producers at PBS. Produced the program "Soul" which aired on WNET, New York from 1967 - 1973. [BLK]

Hampton, Mabel (1902-1989) Activist. At the 1984 NYC Gay Pride Rally, Hampton said, "I have been a lesbian all my life, for eighty-two years, and I am proud of myself and my people. I would like all my people to be free in this world, my gay people and my black people." [20]

Hansberry, Lorraine (1930-1965) Writer. Author of "A Raisin in the Sun" and the first African American woman to have a play produced on Broadway. She is also known for putting Dan Rather in his place. When he asked if she had won the New York Drama Critics' Circle Award because she was a black woman, she calmly replied no. Then said if she had, it would be the first time in America that anyone had been given an award for being a black woman. [AA]

Hardy, James E. Writer. Author of B-Boy Blues, his first novel about same-gender black love. [BBB]

Harris, Craig (1958-1992) Writer, AIDS educator, activist. Harris went out like a meteor. His works appear in the anthologies: "In The Life", "Brother to Brother", and "Sojourner Black Gay Voices in the Age of AIDS." He died of AIDS-related complications. [ITL, OC]

Harris, E. Lynn* Novelist. Harris' two best sellers are "Invisible Life" and its sequel "Just as I Am." [BGLLF]

Harris, Sherry* Politician. Seattle City Council Member. The first openly lesbian African American elected official. [BLK]

Headley, Jubi Jr.* Activist. Executive Director of the National Black Lesbian and Gay Leadership Forum (NBLGLF). Formerly lgbt advocate with United States Conference of Mayors in Washington, DC. Former Executive Assistant and Press Liaison to former Cambridge Mayor Kenneth E. Reeves, the nation's first openly gay mayor. [NBLGLF, P]

Hemphill, Essex (1957-1995) Writer, cultural activist. Hemphill edited "Brother to Brother: New Writings by Black Gay Men." His works are featured in the films: "Tongues Untied" and "Looking for Langston." He narrated the black gay documentary "Out of the Shadows." His essays have appeared in "Advocate", "Gay Community News", "High Performance" and "Out/Week." He died of AIDS-related complications. [BB, ITL]

Hendryx, Nona* Entertainer. Former member of the groups LaBelle and Patti LaBelle and the Blue Bells. [BLK]

Herndon, James (1895?-1983)Pioneer, precursor. Called "Sweet Evening Breeze," or "Miss Sweets", Herndon is remembered as Lexington, Kentucky's most colorful character. He often wore make-up, occassionally performed or appeared on Main Street on Saturdays in drag, and was apparently quite effeminate. Long before there was Ru Paul, Lexington's Sweet Evening Breeze was titillating and gaining respect from locals. [TL]

Hill, Marjorie* Psychologist. Assistant vice president for Special Populations at the New York City Health and Hospitals Corporation, the nation's largest public health network. As former director of the New York City Mayor's Office for Lesbian and Gay Issues she was instrumental in negotiating the inclusion of the lesbian and gay contingent in the St. Patrick's Day parade, by having former NYC Mayor Dinkins march with the group. [BG, BLK, BGLLF]

Hite, Ernest* Activist. Co-founder of Image Plus an organization to instill pride in Black Lesbian and Gay youth and provide HIV/AIDS education. [BLK]

Hughes, Langston (1902-1967) Writer. The writer most identified with the Harlem Renaissance. A prolific writer, he used almost every conceivable form to arrange his thoughts on paper: poems, songs, novels, plays, biographies, histories and essays. His works include: "Not Without Laughter", "The Dream Keeper", and "Tambourines to Glory." His most quoted work, "The Negro Speaks of Rivers" includes the verse: "I have known rivers: I've known rivers ancient as the world and older than the flow of human blood in human veins. My soul has grown deep like the rivers." He often said of his life, "There are some things I don't tell nobody, not even God. He might know about them, but it certainly ain't because I told him." [AA]

Hunter, Alberta (1895-1984) Singer. Hunter was the last of America's original blues/jazz stars performing right up until the end of her life. Hunter retired from music in 1956 but regained her popularity during the 1970s. [AA]

Hunter, B. Michael* Activist, writer. Editor of Other Countries', "Sojourner: Black Gay Voices in the Age of AIDS. [OC]

Hunter, Tyra Transgender. Hunter was a resident of Washington DC left to die following an automobile accident in 1995. Upon discoving that Hunter was anatomically male, the EMS squad member stopped treating her and laughed out loud. Hunter was pronounced dead at DC General Hospital. [NBLGLF]

Icard, Larry* Educator. Associate professor at the University of Washington School of Social Work. Icard's publications include: "Counseling Black Gay Men" and "Black Gay Men and Conflicting Identities." [BGLLF]

Johnson, Cary Alan* (1962) former Executive Director, Gay Men of African Descent (GMAD) an advocacy, support and HIV service organization. Johnson has served as Regional Director for Amnesty International, in D.C. and as AI's Country Resource Coordinator in NYC. He was also the Country Representative for Africare in Kigali, Rwanda and worked with the United Nations High Commission in Bukavau, Zaire. Johnson is an accomplished author with work appearing in Brother to Brother and Sojourner[CL, VS]

Johnson, Michelle* (1956) Journalist. Formerly with the Boston Globe. Member of the National Association of Black Journalists (NABJ) and the National Lesbian and Gay Journalists Association (NLGJA). Johnson took part in the groundbreaking NABJ conference session dealing with lesbian and gay issues. Johnson now runs her own Internet Consulting company.[NJ]

Jones, Bill E.* Psychiatrist. President of New York City's Health and Hospitals Corporation, the nation's largest public health network. Formerly commissioner of New York City's Department of Mental Health, Mental Retardation and Alcoholism Services. [BGLLF, BLK]

Jones, Bill T.* Choreographer. Founder and Director of the Bill T. Jones /Arnie Zane Dance Company. The "Last Supper at Uncle Tom's Cabin The Promised Land." is Jones' most famous pieces. His work "Still/Here" deals with the connections between life and death, sickness and wellness. [BG]

Jones, John "Bernard"* (1965) Publisher. Jones left a career in human relations to publish the magazine formerly known as JFY; he currently publishes the all-Black magazine, Millennium, and the soon to be published BlackPride. Jones is the youngest of child of his adopted family and the eldest of his biological family. [P]

Jones, Zachary* Clergy. Pastor of Unity Fellowship Church New York. Church Elder. [BLK]

Jordan, Barbara (1936-1996) Attorney, Stateswoman, Educator. Jordan was the first black woman to be elected to the Texas state senate. The first black Southern woman to be elected to the House of Representatives, serving three terms from 1972-1978. Jordan addressed the Democratic national convention in 1976, becoming the first black woman to do so. Jordan's oratory skills received national attention during the televised coverage of the House Judiciary Committee's debate regarding impeaching President Nixon. Following her tenure in Congress, Jordan took a teaching position at the University of Texas at Austin. Jordan was "outed" posthumously by an article in the March 1996 issue of The Advocate.[AV]

Jordan, Jeffrey* (1963) Clergy. Interim Pastor of Metropolitan Community Church of Philadelphia. [P]

Jordan, June* Writer. English professor and author of "Passion", "Civil Wars" and "Kimako's Story." [HG]

Julien, Isaac* Filmmaker. British film maker responsible for "Looking for Langston" and "Young Soul Rebels." [BLK]

Keene, John* (1965- ) Writer. Author of the award-winning novel ANNOTATIONS (1995). A graduate of Harvard College, he is a New York Times Fellow at New York University. Keene's work has appeared in Brother to Brother and Shade [P]

Kenan, Randall* (1963) Writer. Author of "A Visitation of Spirits", "Let the Dead Bury Their Dead" and a biography of James Baldwin designed for young people. [BGLLF]

Kelly, Patrick (1954-1990) Fashion designer. Kelly, a transplanted Mississippian with an outrageous sense of fashion, became the toast of Paris. He died of AIDS-related complications. [BLK]

Kinnard, Rupert* Cartoonist. Creator of the Brown Bomber and Diva Touche' Flambe'. [LB]

Knuckles, Frankie* (1955) DJ, musical producer, remixer) Known as the "Father of House" Knuckles is credited with innovating this form of dance music while a DJ at The Warehouse in Chicago. Knuckles also played stints at NYC's Better Days and Continental Baths. He has worked with artists ranging from Michael Jackson to Elton John. [BL]

Lewis, Edmonia (1844-1911) Artist. Born of a Chippewa mother and an African father, Lewis worked in clay and changed the notion of black art around the time of the Emancipation. [AA]

Levan, Larry (1954-1992) DJ. Larry Levan is the performing name for Lawrence Philpot the legendary New York DJ who held court at the Paradise Garage for 11 years. The large "sit in" disco speakers that he helped design were named "Levans" after him. [BLK, OUT]

Livingston, Derek Charles* Activist. One of four national co-chairs of the 1993 March on Washington. Currently Executive Director of North Carolina Pride PAC, a gay & lesbian lobbying & political action committee for all of North Carolina. [OL]

Locke, Alain (1886-1954) Philosopher. The first African American Rhodes Scholar and the chief interpreter of the Harlem Renaissance. Langston Hughes gave him the title, "midwife of the Harlem Renaissance." [AA]

Lorde, Audre' (1934-1992) Writer. Lorde was named the Poet Laureate of New York State. A writer of prose and poetry, Lorde's work is deeply personal and at the same time intensely political. Works include: "Sister Outsider", "The Cancer Journals", and "Zami: A New Spelling of My Name." In "I am your sister", she wrote: "When you read the words of Langston Hughes you are reading the words of a Black Gay man. When you read the words of Alice Dunbar-Nelson and Angelina Weld Grimke', poets of the Harlem Renaissance, you are reading the words of Black Lesbians. When you listen to the life-affirming voices of Bessie Smith and Ma Rainey, you are hearing Black Lesbian women. When you see the plays and read the words of Lorraine Hansberry, you are reading the words of a woman who loved women deeply." She succumbed to cancer after a long struggle. [AA, BG, BLK, HG]

Lowe, Sandra* Attorney, activist. Director of the New York State Office of Gay and Lesbian Affairs under Governor Mario Cuomo. [BLK]

Mabley, Jackie "Moms" (1897-1975) Comedian. "Moms" rose to prominence performing at the Cotton Club and Apollo Theater in the 1920s and 1930s. Her 1960 comedy album "Moms Mabley at The U.N." sold over a million copies. She appeared at Carnegie Hall in 1962. Her first television appearance was not until 1967, toward the end of her career. [AA]

Manag o, Cleo* (1963) Activist, Writer, Instructor, Social Architect. Founder of the Black Men's Xchange (BMX), an Africentric national communications clearinghouse and support system for the empowerment of Black men of diverse sexual expression. Cleo Manago founder and director of the AMASSI Institute is also known for popularizing the terms for Black-men-who-Love-men and same-gender-loving people of African descent. [P]

Mason, Abner* Activist. President of Log Cabin, an organization of gay Republicans. [BLK]

Mathis, Johnny* (1935) Entertainer. When activists decided to "out" the singer, they were embarrassed to discover he had been out for years. [BLK]

May, Gregory* (1958) Activist. Former Co-chair of the Los Angeles-based Black Gay and Lesbian Leadership Forum. [BGLLF]

Maye, Patrick* Clergy. Pastor of Unity Fellowship Church, Philadelphia. [P]

McAlmont, David* (1967) London, UK - singer/songwriter. First and foremost Out Black Gay personality in Britain, who has been out since his career began in 1990. Works include: two albums and several successful singles in the UK. He co-wrote the song Surrender sung by k.d.lang on the Bond film Tomorrow Never Dies soundtrack and covered Diamonds are Forever from an earlier Bond film. He is a positive role model to young black gays and lesbians in Britain. [R]

McCoy, Renee* Clergy. Pastor of Unity Fellowship Church, Detroit. Church Elder. [BLK]

Moragne, Tim* Psychologist. Former president of the Association of Black Psychologists. Moragne came out to the members of the organization in his first keynote speech. [BGLLF, BLK]

Morgan, Tom* Journalist. New York Times. Former president of the National Association of Black Journalists (NABJ). Morgan, along with Linda Villarosa, and Michelle Johnson, organized the NABJ's first conference session on lesbian and gay issues. [NJ]

Morrow, Bruce* writer. Recipient of the 1995 Frederick Douglass Fellowship for young African-American Fiction Writers. Editor of Shade His work has appeared in The New York Times, Callaloo, aRude, and the anthologies Speak My Name and Ancestral House. [P]

Ndege'Ocello, Me'Shell* Recording Artist. Her name, pronounced (n-Day-gay-o-Chell-o), is Swahili for "free like a bird." Her debut album was the innovative Plantation Lullabies. [BLK]

Nero, Charles I* Educator. Currently teaching in the Department of Rhetoric at Bates College in Lewiston, Maine. His research about black gay literature, black women's history, HIV/AIDS education, and black political conservatives has appeared in academic journals as well as popular anthologies such as Essex Hemphill's Brother to Brother. [P]

Nkoli, Simon* Activist. South African involved in the anti-Apartheid and HIV/AIDS struggles. [BLK]

Nugent, Bruce (1906-1987) Writer. The Bohemian of the Harlem Renaissance, Nugent is considered the first black writer to deal openly with homosexuality. His 1926 "Smoke, Lillies and Jade" appeared in the first issue of the short-lived literary quarterly, "Fire!!" The critic for the "Baltimore Afro-American" wrote, " I have just tossed the first issue of 'Fire!!' into the fire." [BW, ITL]

Parker, Pat Writer. Educator and writer included in numerous anthologies including, "Gay and Lesbian Poetry in Our Time," and author of "Jonestown and Other Madness." She died of complications related to breast cancer. [BLK, HG]

Parkerson, Michelle* Filmmaker, activist. Parkinson is the creator of "Voicescapes." Writings include: Waiting Rooms a collections of poetry and Birth of a Nation: Towards Black Gay and Lesbian Imagery in Film and Video[BLK]

Penn, Robert* (1948) AIDS activist. Coordinator of Gay Men's Health Crisis Center's AIDS Prevention Program for People of Color. [BGLLF, OC]

Penniman, Richard W.* (1935) Entertainer. Little Richard is one of the greatest influences on Rock 'n' Roll. His first hit was "Tutti Fruiti" in 1955. [BLK]

Pettiway, Leon E.* Educator. Professor of Criminology at Indiana University, Bloomington. His work, Honey, Honey, Miss Thang: Being Black, Gay and on the Streets documents the lives of five transgendered black gay men. It and a companion book, Workin' It: Women Living Through Drugs and Crime., were funded by a million dollar grant from the National Institute on Drug Abuse which sought to investigate the relationship betweeen drug use and urban crime. [P]

Pomo Afro Homos* Theater troupe. Djola Bernard Branner, Brian Freeman, Eric Gupton, New Member: Marvin K. White Theater troupe which presents the black gay male experience. Pieces include: "Fierce Love: Stories From Black Gay Life" and "Dark Fruit." Appeared on the Comedy Channel's Special "Out There." Pomo Afro Homos has now disbanded. [BG, BLK]

Price, Gilbert (1942-1991) Singer. This New York born baritone's voice was always compared with that of Paul Robeson. One of Langston Hughes's proteges, his first acting role was in Fly Blackbird,1962. His first starring role was as Jerico-Jim Crow, 1963. He appeared in Roar of the Greasepaint and on various TV shows inclucing: Ed Sullivan, Red Skelton, and Merv Griffin. Price was nominated for four Tony Awards: Lost in the Stars, 1972; The Night That Made America Famous, 1975; 1600 Pennsylvania Avenue, 1976; and Timbuktu, 1978 Other credits can be found in Who's Who Among Black Americans, 1985. [WAS]

Rainey, Ma (1886-1939) Singer. Blues singer popular from 1904 until 1935. Rainey recorded "Prove It On Me Blues" which included the openly lesbian line, "Went out last night with a crowd of my friends. They must've been women, 'cause I don't like no men." [AA]

Rawlins, Clifford (1950-1993) Activist. Founder of Adodi, an Afrocentric support group and system for black gay and bisexual men. The group has chapters in Philadelphia, New York and Chicago. He died of AIDS-related complications. [AD]

Reeves, Kenneth* (1952) Politician Former-Mayor. First African American mayor of the city of Cambridge, Massachusetts. Nation's first black openly gay mayor. [BLK, CC]

Reynolds, Sean* (1950) Social Worker/Writer/Performance Artist Medical Social Worker in Maternal and Child Health at San Francisco General Hospital. Collaborator w/ Rhodessa Jones on the MEDEA Project: Theater For Incarcerated Women. Author of numerous articles about the health of incarcerated African American women. [P]

Riggs, Marlon (1956-1994) Filmmaker. Produced, directed, and edited the black gay documentary "Tongues Untied", which was aired on PBS. Other films include: the award winning "Ethnic Notions", "Anthem", "Color Adjustment", and "Non, Je Ne Regrette Rien (No Regrets)." Riggs was one of the youngest people ever tenured at the University of California at Berkeley in arts and humanities. He was working on the film "Black Is...Black Ain't" when he died on April 5, 1994 of AIDS-related complications. [BLK, OC]

Robinson, H. Alexander* Attorney, activist. Legal Representative for the American Civil Liberties Union AIDS and Lesbian and Gay Civil Rights Projects and Co-chair of The Campaign for Fairness. [BGLLF]

Robinson, Colin* (1961) Activist, writer, performance artist, HIV/AIDS Educator. Native of Trinidad & Tobago. Director of HIV Prevention at Gay Men's Health Crisis (GMHC). New York field producer for Marlon Riggs's Tongues Untied. First paid Executive Director of Gay Men of African Descent (GMAD). His poetry appears in numerous Black gay anthologies, his prose in Gay Community News, and his lips in Marlon Riggs's Anthem. [P]

Robinson, Max (1939-1988) Journalist. First black anchor on a national network news program. He died of AIDS-related complications. The Whitman Walker Clinic in Washington, DC named its AIDS treatment facility in Anacostia (Southeast DC) after him. [BB]

Robinson, Philip* (1951) poet, performance artist, educator, activist. Co-chair of the AIDS Action Committee's Bayard Rustin Breakfast, Student Support Coordinator and AIDS Coordinator at the Grover Cleveland Middle School in Boston and recipient of the 1990 Audre' Lorde Award for poetry. His works include: Secret Passages, A Trilogy of Thought and We Still Leave a Legacy now part of The Names Project AIDS Memorial Quilt. Other works appear in The Road Before Us 100 Gay Black Poets and In The Life: A Black Gay Anthology. Robinson lives with his life-partner of more than 15 years, Joseph Jackson. [P]

Robinson, Sandra L.* Clergy. President and chief executive officer of Samaritan College, an international, professional school of ministry for the Universal Fellowship of Metropolitan Community Churches. [BGLLF]

RuPaul* Entertainer. RuPaul Andre' Charles, six-foot-five black blonde drag queen who rose to the top of the dance charts as the "Supermodel of the World." [BG, BLK]

Rustin, Bayard (1910-1987) Civil Rights Activist. Rustin was the chief organizer of the 1963 March on Washington. Civil rights leaders, concerned that Rustin's homosexuality and prison term as a conscientious objector during W.W.II might be used to discredit the march, asked A. Philip Randolph to be the march's official head. Randolph kept Rustin on as chief organizer. [AA, OC]

Saint, Assoto (1957-1994) Writer, publisher and activist. Assoto Saint (Yves Lubin) Haitian-born Saint was a pioneering writer, dealing with explicit Black Gay themes long before many others. He established Galiens Press which made a commitment to publishing not only his own work but the work of others, producing "The Road Before Us: 100 Black Gay Poets" and "Here to Dare." Saint was working to complete two anthologies when he died in June of 1994 of AIDS-related complications. [BGLLF]

Seales, Franklyn (1953-1990) Actor. Played the part of Dexter Stuffins on the sitcom "Silver Spoons." He died of AIDS-related complications. [BLK]

Semien, Stephen* Performer. Semien began his career with the Joel Nobel (Katherine Dunham) Dance Company. He has performed in "Don't Bother Me I Can't Cope," "Your Arms Too Short to Box With God," "Ain't Misbehavin," "Sophisticated Ladies," and the film version of "The Wiz." His show "Children of the Night" won the NAACP image award for best choreography. [BGLLF]

Shende, Suzanne* Attorney. Staff attorney for the Center for Constitutional Rights and the Director of their Anti-Bias Violence Project. [BGLLF]

Simmons, Ron* Activist, writer. Executive director of Us Helping Us, People Into Living, Inc. and a certified "trainer of trainers" in AIDS Prevention for African Americans and high risk youth. [BGLLF]

Smith, Barbara* Editor and Publisher. Founder and Publisher Emeritus of Kitchen Table: Women of Color Press. Smith is currently researching and writing a history of Black lesbians and gays in the U.S. The Kitchen Table Collective's best sellers include: "This Bridge Called My Back", and "Home Girls." Additionally Smith co-edited, "Conditions: Five, The Black Women's Issue" and "All the Women Are White, All the Blacks Are Men, But Some of Us Are Brave: Black Women's Studies." [BLK, BGLLF, HG]

Smith, Bessie (1894-1937) Singer. Smith is regarded by many as the greatest blues singer in history. Her first recording, "Down Home Blues" (1924), sold a surprising 780,000 disks in less than six months. She once held off a Ku Klux Klan gang single-handedly. [AA]

Smith, Nadine* Activist. Executive director of the Human Rights Task Force of Florida and one of four national co-chairs of the 1993 March on Washington for Gay, Lesbian & Bi Equal Rights. Among the gay/lesbian leaders who met with President Clinton in the White House. [BGLLF, WB]

Smith, Vengerflutta Carlita* Educator. Trainer, humorist and inspirational speaker. Member-at-large of the American College Personnel Association (ACPA) Standing Committee for Lesbian, Gay and Bisexual Awareness. [BGLLF]

Smith, Willi (1947-1987) Fashion Designer. Smith is best known for his affordable line of comfortable clothes known as "Williwear." He died of AIDS-related complications. [EB]

Sojourner, Sabrina* Activist. Shadow Representative from the District of Columbia. Former legislative aide for California Congresswoman Maxine Waters. Sojourner became the first out African American Lesbian to serve on a Democratic State Committee, when she was elected to the D.C. Democratic State Committee. [BGLLF]

St. Cloud, Tiffani* (1978). Youth Activist. Youngest person inducted into the city of Chicago, Commission on Human Relations Gay and Lesbian Hall of Fame. Co-chair Smith College's Lesbian Bisexual Alliance's Women of Color Committee. Founder of PRIDE a support group at Whitney M. Young high school in Chicago, for lesbian, gay, bisexual and questioning youth. PRIDE is now the 2nd largest student organization at the school, providing a safe space where people can talk about issues of sexual orientation and learn to be more tolerant. [GLBPOC]

St. John, Keith* Politician. Alderman, second ward Albany, NY. First black openly gay elected official in the United States. [BLK]

Strayhorn, Billy (1915-1967) Musician. Wrote "Take the A Train," the tune Duke Ellington used as his theme song. Strayhorn began working with Ellington in 1939 and was his alter ego. Strayhorn wrote and arranged for the band. Other compositions, include: "Lush Life," "Chelsea Bridge" and "Passion Flower." He collaborated with Ellington on a number of extended suites including: "Such Sweet Thunder," "A Drum Is a Woman," and "Perfume Suite." See Lush Life: A Biography of Billy Strayhorn by David Hajdu [DE]

Sylvester (1948-1988) Entertainer. Sylvester James Hurd put his energy into his performances, not hiding his identity. His "Step II" LP went gold. He was at the height of his popularity during the disco era of the 1970s. He died of AIDS-related complications. [AA, BLK]

Tarver, Charles W. B. IV* (1956) Activist. Formerly with the Human Rights Campaign Fund (HRCF) where he was the first black male lobbyist with that organization. Facilitates the "Brother to Brother" workshop for black gay men. [BGLLF, BLK]

Taylor, Cecil* (1933) Musician. One of the premier improvisational pianists of our time. Taylor received a Guggheim Fellowship in 1973, and recently received a MacArthur Felloship (a so-called genius award). He has taught at Antioch College and has toured and recorded extensively. [QV]

Taylor, Willa* Cultural Activist. Taylor coordinated the cultural festival for Gay Games IV the largest Gay and Lesbian arts festival in the world which included exhibitions and performances of more than 3,000 artists in theaters, galleries, public spaces and concert halls throughout New York City. Taylor was on loan from the Lincoln Center Theater, where she is the Education Program Coordinator. [BGLLF]

Thais-Williams, Jewel* Businesswoman. Owner of Los Angeles' Catch One Disco and founder of a home for women and children with HIV/AIDS. [BLK]

Thomas, Wynn P.* (1953) Production Designer. Set designer for Spike Lee's film production company. Film credits include: "She's Gotta Have It", "School Daze", "Do The Right Thing", "Mo' Better Blues", "Jungle Fever", "Malcolm X", "The Five Heart Beats", and "A Bronx Tale". [P]

Turner, LaPaula* Clergy. Ordained minister with MCC, Los Angeles. [BGLLF]

Vega* (1954) Publisher. Vega Press published "Men of Color," "A Warm December" and "In Our Own Image." [BLK, ITL]

VelJohnson, Reginald* (1952) Actor. Plays the patriarch Carl Winslow on ABC's "Family Matters." [BLK]

Villarosa, Linda* Journalist. Senior Editor Essence Magazine who along with her mother Clara Villarosa wrote "Coming Out" in May 1991, Essence, an article about her coming out process. The article was read by five million readers and received more letters than any previous article. [BGLLF]

Wagner, Vallerie* Activist. Co-chair of the Los Angeles-based Black Gay and Lesbian Leadership Forum. [BGLLF]

Walker, Alice* (1944) Author. U.S. writer and feminist; born in Eatonton, Ga.; novel `The Color Purple' awarded Pulitzer prize and American Book Award 1983 (`Revolutionary Petunias', `Meridian', `You Can't Keep a Good Woman Down', `In Search of Our Mother's Gardens', `To Hell With Dying', `The Temple of My Familiar', `Possessing the Secret of Joy'). In the February 1996 issue of Essence Magazine Walker states, "I am bisexual. I just live my life. I don't think I have to phone in and tell everybody." [ES]

Walker, Steve* (1967) Activist and educator. Founder of the African-American Lesbian/Gay Alliance of Houston (AALGA). Member of the City of Houston HIV Community planning committee and RFP review board. Also has served as a councilor and educator in HIV prevention. [P]

Washington, Jamie* Activist. Educator active with the American College Personnel Association (ACPA). Served as a panellist on the nationally broadcast teleconference "Understanding and meeting the needs of Gay, Lesbian, and bisexual students" [National Univ. Teleconf. Network, February, 1992]. [BGLLF]

Wasson, Robert P.* Attorney. Professor at Suffolk University Law School in Boston where he teaches Federal Civil Procedure, Federal Courts, Jurisprudence and Sexual Orientation and the Law. [BGLLF]

Waters, Ruth* Activist. Co-founder and past co-chair of the Los Angeles based Black Gay and Lesbian Leadership Forum. [BGLLF]

Watkins, Perry (1947-1996 Watkins was drafted into the Army in 1968 during the Vietnam War, despite having declared his homosexuality. At the time, the Army discharged soldiers for sodomy and other specific acts but not for homosexuality itself. The Army revoked Mr. Watkins' security clearance in 1980. When he sued to prevent his discharge, the Army denied his re-enlistment in 1982. In 1989, the 9th U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals ruled that it was unjust for the Army to enforce its anti-homosexual policy because Mr. Watkins acknowledged being gay when he was drafted. In 1991, the Supreme Court refused to hear the Army's appeal. Mr. Watkins retired from the military with full honors and $135,000 in back pay. Mr. Watkins was featured in the late Randy Shilts' book "Conduct Unbecoming." Watkins died in March of 1996 of AIDS-related complications. [BLK]

White, Evelyn C.* Journalist. San Francisco Chronicle. Editor of the "Black Women's Health Book: Speaking For Ourselves" and co-author of the photography book, "The African Americans." [BGLLF]

Williams, Karen* Comedienne. Affectionately known as the Diva of Comedy and the Queen of Improv. Williams is the creator and facilitator of Humor-At-Large workshop series and founder of the International Institute of Humor and Healing Arts (HAHA) [NBLGLF]

Williams, Reggie* Activist. Former executive director of the National Task Force on AIDS Prevention. [BGLLF]

Wilson, Phill* (1956 ) Activist. Director of Public Policy for AIDS Project Los Angeles (APLA). Co-founder and past co-chair of the Black Gay and Lesbian Leadership Forum. Among the gay/lesbian leaders who met with President Clinton in the White House. [AL, BGLLF]

Wolfe, George C.* (1954) Playwright/Director/Producer. Producer of the Joseph Papp Public Theater/New York Shakespeare Festival. Wolfe received the 1996 Tony Award for Best Direction of a Musical for Bring in 'da Noise, Bring in 'da Funk He wrote the play The Colored Museum, and directed the plays Spunk, and on Broadway Angels in American, Jelly's Last Jam, and Anna Deveare Smith's Twilight: Los Angeles, 1992. [AT]

Woods, Donald (1958-1992) Filmmaker. Executive director of AIDSFILMS a production company that involves various communities in the making of HIV/AIDS films. Died of AIDS-related complications. [BGLLF]

Woodson, Jacqueline* Writer. Author of books for young people. "I Hadn't Meant to Tell You This" is a story of two young women dealing with sexual abuse. "From the Notes of the Melanin Sun" deals with a mother coming out to her adolescent son. [GN]

Young, Ivy* Program Director Astraea National Lesbian Action Foundation. Activist in the movement for social justice for more than twenty-five years. Veteran of the black Liberation and black feminist movements of the '60s and '70s. Advocacy journalist, in commercial and community radio in Washington, D.C., and New York City. Activist in the lesbian and gay movement since the '70s working with grassroots and national organizations. Prior to becoming Astraea's Program Director in October 1994, she spent five years on the staff of the National Gay and Lesbian Task Force, first as Director of the Families Project and subsequently as Director of the Creating Change Conference. [P]

Reference Key
AA = Alyson Almanac
AD = Adodi Training Manual
AL = Alternatives Magazine
AT = American Theatre Magazine
AV = The Advocate
BB = Brother to Brother: New Writings by Black Gay Men
BBB = B-Boy Blues
BG = B&G; Magazine
BGLLF = Black Gay & Lesbian Leadership Forum  
*Became NBLGLF

BLK = BLK Magazine
BL = Blacklines
BW = Black Men White Men
CC = The Cambridge Chronicle
CL = Colours
DE = Duke Ellington
EB = Ebony Magazine
ES = Essence Magazine
FT = Frontiers Magazine
GN = Internet Newsgroup Gaynet
HG = Home Girls: A Black Feminist Anthology
IHI = International Homophilics Institute
ITL = In The Life: A Black Gay Anthology
LB = Lambda Book Report
NYT = New York Times
OC = Other Countries
OUT = Out Magazine
P = Personal Friend, Permission Granted
R = Submitteded by a reader along with proper verification.
QV = Queer Voices
TL = The Letter 
TW = The Women
VS = Venus
WB = Washington Blade
10% = Ten Percent Magazine
20 = Black Love, Black Resistance: 20 Questions
         on Lesbians and Gays in Black History

Sources making specific reference to sexual orientation are cited. Other sources (not listed) were used for additional information.


Adodi (undated). "Support groups for gay and bisexual men of African descent." Philadelphia: Adodi.

"The Alyson almanac: the fact book of the lesbian and gay community." (1989, 1990, 1993). Boston: Alyson Publications, Inc.

B&G; Magazine: Vol. 1, No 3; Vol. 2, No. 3; Vol. 3, No. 3; Vol. 3 No. 5.

Black gay and lesbian leadership forum: Conference booklet, newsletter, (1992, 1993, 1994). Los Angeles: BGLLF. Became NBLGLF (1998).

BlackLines: Volume 1, Number 10

BLK Magazine: March 1989: August 1989; December 1989; January, 1990; Vol. 2. No. 2; Vol. 2, No. 6; Vol. 2, No. 7; Vol. 2, No.8; Vol. 2, No. 9; Vol. 2, No. 10; Vol. 2, No. 12; Vol. 3 No. 2; Vol.3. No. 3; Vol. 3, No. 4; Vol. 3, No. 5; Vol. 3, No. 8; Vol. 3, No. 9; Vol. 4, No. 1; Vol. 4, No. 2; Vol. 4, No. 3; Vol. 4, No. 4; Vol. 5, No 1; Vol. 5, No. 2; Vol. 5, No. 3.

Collier, J. L. (1987). "Duke Ellington" New York: Oxford University Press, Billy Strayhorn: p. 199.

Colours: "For progressive men of color." (September 1993). Vol. 1 No. 2., Relationships '97.

Gill, J. (1995). "Queer Voices" University of Minnesota Press Cecil Taylor: pp. 58 ff.

Hemphill, E. (1991). "Brother to brother: New writings by black gay men." Boston: Alyson Publications, Inc.

Hertzog, M. (September 1993). "The out list." Version 1.2.

Hilton, A. (1996). "The Women" Farrar Strauss Giroux.

Hunter, B. M. (1993). "Sojourner: Black gay voices in the age of AIDS." New York: Other Countries.

Johnson, C. A., Garret, D., & Taylor, T. (1989) "Other countries: Black gay voices." New York: Other Countries.

Jones, Jeff. (March, 1997) The Extraordinary life of Sweet Evening Breeze exclusive to "The Letter" (KY glbt paper)

Keen, L. & Chibbaro, L. (December 31, 1993). "The year in review." The Washington Blade.

Lambda Book Report: A review of contemporary gay and lesbian literature. March/April 1992. Vol. 3 No. 3.

Lee, N. (Winter, 1994). "Black Love, Black Resistance: 20 Questions on Lesbians and Gays in Black History. School Voices.

Marshall, J. & Deal, T. (July 91). "Justin Fashanu: soccer's enigmatic gay star." Gay Times.

Mignott, I. (May, 1993). "Sounds Wicked" Out Magazine.

Miller. A, (December 10, 1992). "Activists hail him as nation's first black, openly gay mayor." The Cambridge Chronicle.

Morales, E. (December 1994). "Theatre and the Wolfe" American Theatre, vol. 11 no. 10 pgs. 15-20

Moss, J. J. (March 1996). "Barbara Jordan: The other life." The Advocate. Issue 702. pgs. 38-45

Poussaint, A. F. (December 1990). "An honest look at black lesbians and gays." Ebony Magazine.

Smith, B. (1983). "Home girls: A black feminist anthology." New York: Kitchen Table: Women of Color Press.

Smith, M. J. (1983). "Black men white men: A gay anthology." San Francisco: Gay Sunshine Press.

Thorpe, D. (March/April, 1994) "Keeping the faith at Harvard." Ten Percent Magazine.

Trucco T. "The Elusive Spark That Ignites the Choreographer" The New York Times, Sunday July 10, 1994, Arts & Leisure (section 2) pg. 4.

Venus Vol. 3, No. 1 1997

Winston Baye, B "Why blacks are silent" Gannet News Service reprinted in The News Journal (Wilmington, DE)


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