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OHRP:  Office of Human Research Protection (formerly OPRR -Office for Protection from Research Risk) – An administrative unit within the Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS). In June 1999, on recommendation of the advisory committee to the Director of NIH and acceptance by HHS Secretary Donna E. Shalala, OPRR was relocated in the Office of the Secretary to elevate its stature and effectiveness. The primary responsibility within the federal government is for developing and implementing the policies, procedures and regulations required to protect human subjects and animals involved in research sponsored by HHS.

OHRP provides guidance to IRB members as well as scientists and research administrators on the complex ethical issues relating to the use of animals and human subjects in biomedical or behavioral research.

OHRP also has a regulator role.  They monitor and evaluate an institution’s compliance with the rules governing research subjects.  Furthermore, they have the authority to investigate and, if necessary, to require corrective action or even suspend HHS funding to an institution until the problems are resolved. www.hhs.gov/ohrp

Oral History:  The Oral History Association defines oral history as “a method of gathering and preserving historical information through recorded interviews with participants in past events and ways of life.” www.oralhistory.org 

ORO:  Office of Research Oversight - Serves as the primary VHA office in advising the Under Secretary for Health on all matters of compliance and assurance regarding human subjects protections, animal welfare, research safety, and research misconduct. www1.va.gov/oro

Orphan Drug:  An orphan drug is one for a disease which affects less than 200,000 Americans, or less than 5 per 10,000 people in a community.