Approved by the faculty, April 2012
This OP will be reviewed by September of every odd-numbered year (2013) by the Director, Office of Experiential Learning and approved by the Dean and the Executive Council.
This OP will be reviewed by September of every odd-numbered year (2011) by the Curriculum Committee and approved by the Dean and the Executive Council.
700.001.001 – General Guidance
The selection of preceptors and experiential sites will be done with purposeful intent to optimize the student’s educational experience, and provide meaningful assessment of the student’s skills and knowledge. The sites should provide an opportunity for interaction with diverse patient populations and each student should have multiple opportunities to perform patient-centered care activities in a variety of settings. The pharmacy practice experience will be in-depth, structured, and coordinated with other components of the curriculum.
The experiential learning requires an environment for active participation and patient care responsibilities, in a progressive manner. The experiential learning process is designed to develop the practice skills, judgment, professional behavior, professional attitude, and personal responsibilities needed for each student to embark on an independent and collaborative practice.
The objectives for the pharmacy practice experiences must identify the competencies to be achieved, level of student responsibility, and setting needed for the objectives to be met. For pharmacy practice experiences involving direct patient care, students will be required to document the types of disease states, conditions encountered, and other event data as required for their experiential learning.
The preceptor as educator should facilitate the acquisition of the skill competencies required to be an independent pharmacy practitioner. Students should be provided the opportunity to demonstrate achievement of stated competencies by use of reliable, validated criteria; the progress of the student should be assessed midway through the experience and at the completion of the practice site experience.
700.001.002 – Quality Assurance and Monitoring of Diverse Patient Groups in the Experiential Learning Process
The Office of Experiential Learning will ensure that all students have an opportunity to care for diverse patient populations in the experiential setting either at the experiential site or by simulation when necessary. Diverse patient populations include, but are not limited to, specific age groups from infants to the very elderly, caring for both genders, and different cultural backgrounds. Community experiential sites will be expected to dispense an adequate number of prescriptions per week to allow the student opportunities to see diverse populations during the experiential rotation. To ensure that diverse populations are encountered, the student will be required to document in their portfolio the population characteristics of the patients that they interview, perform dosage calculations, and other care services provided.
700.001.003 – Oversight of Pharmacy Practice Experiences
The Director of Experiential Learning is responsible for the oversight and quality assurance of the experiential curriculum. The Director of Experiential Learning should have sufficient practice, academic, and management skills to have credibility with other pharmacy practitioners, as well as, to facilitate the School’s ability to advance pharmacy practice. The School will utilize computerized systems to manage the pharmacy practice experiences.
The School will limit the number of students assigned to each preceptor; except in unusual circumstances this ratio will be 2 students per preceptor, however, APPE students can and will be expected to mentor and facilitate instruction for IPPE students that may be in a similar experiential rotation.
Students will assess their preceptor and their rotation in a manner to foster constructive criticism. The assessment of the preceptor will include:
• Ability to facilitate learning
• Communication skills
• Quality, as it relates to a professional role model
• Effectiveness related to pharmacy education
700.001.004 – Preceptor Criteria
The School, through the Office of Experiential Learning, will identify preceptors who exhibit qualities, behavior, and values consistent with the educational goals and philosophies of the School. The following characteristics are sought:
• Preceptor is familiar with the School’s mission, goals, and values
• Preceptor demonstrates ethical and moral behavior
• Preceptor demonstrates effective leadership and management
• Participates in community outreach activities, such as, health fairs
• Utilizes clinical publications and drug information to provide evidence-based decision making
• Monitors the quality of professional practice and teaching activities
• Treats all patients equally regardless of education or resources
• Active in local, state, or national professional organizations
• Serve as interviewers, advisory groups, and are involved in curriculum development of the school of pharmacy
• Provides patient-centered care
• Desire to teach
• Encourages self-directed learning of the student with constructive feedback
• Treat students as colleagues-in-training
• Demonstrate effective interprofessional communication skills
700.001.005 – Quality Assurance and Monitoring of Preceptor Excellence
The Office of Experiential Learning will employ several methods to monitor the quality of the preceptor pharmacist as an educator; these include, but are not limited to:
• Student evaluations
• On-site visit and direct observation by the Office of Experiential Learning
• Participation in developing and improving the experiential curriculum
If correctable deficiencies are identified, then additional training and feedback will be made available to the preceptor by the Office of Experiential Learning to improve their ability to be an exemplary preceptor. In the case where the Office of Experiential Learning has concluded that the imperfections are not readily correctable that preceptor will be removed from the available preceptor list and their status of adjunct faculty terminated.
Data derived from student portfolios, quality evaluations and student preceptor evaluations will be summarized yearly and included within the Office of Experiential Learning’s annual report to the Curriculum Committee.
700.001.006 – Training of the Preceptor
The School will facilitate preceptor development including, but not limited to, providing relevant information via a preceptor-oriented website, newsletters, CDs, and regional training. Preceptor training and development should cover:
• the School’s mission, goals, and values
• specific objectives for the pharmacy practice experiences
• the School’s curriculum as it relates to the practice experience
• the School’s teaching methodologies
• the School’s assessment and grading processes
700.001.007 – Aspects of the Introductory Pharmacy Practice Experience
The School’s intent is to provide the student with rich and varied opportunities in pharmacy practice. The student is expected to have multiple opportunities to experience and demonstrate competency in pharmacy practice skills. Introductory pharmacy practice experiences may include, but not limited to:
• evaluating appropriateness of medication dosing utilizing basic dosing principles
• shadowing of practitioners or APPE students
• Interviews with real patients
• Real world personnel and fiscal management issues
• Opportunities to train, mentor, and facilitate peer learning.
• Service learning
o Foster cultural competency, diversity awareness, empathy, and professional attitudes
o Meets a community need
o Establish or enhance a relationship between the community and the academic institution
o Foster civic and professional responsibility, and the development of a sense of caring for others
o Have been integrated into the required academic curriculum
o Provide an opportunity to reflect on the service learning experience
o Enhance what is taught in the didactic curriculum
o Provide opportunities for Interprofessional interaction
• Real practice experiences in community, institutional, long-term care pharmacies, etc.
• Processing and dispensing medication orders
• Creating patient profiles using obtained information
• Responding to drug information inquiries
• Interacting with other healthcare professionals
• Participating in events designed to benefit the health of the general public
• Interpreting and evaluating patient information
• Assessing the need for referral for patients seeking pharmacist-guided self-care
• Identifying patient-specific factors that affect pharmacotherapy and/or disease-state management
• Administering medications
• Providing point-of-care and patient-centered services
• Preparing and compounding extemporaneous preparations and sterile products
• Interacting with pharmacy technicians in the delivery of pharmacy services
• Documenting interventions in patients records per site protocol
• Present patient cases
• Billing third parties for pharmacy services
700.001.008 – Site Specific Criteria for Excellence
• Must provide patient-centered care and that this care is the primary practice focus
• Quality improvement efforts at the site include the use of automation and barcode scanning verification in distribution
• Patient number and variety sufficient to care for diverse populations
• Is legally compliant with local, state, and federal laws
• Provide service to diverse population
• HIPPA Compliant
• Applies quality assurance or quality improvement principles
• Utilizes informatics
• Offers Medication-Therapy-Management services:
o Smoking cessation
o Blood pressure
o Other point-of care screenings.
700.001.009 – Quality Assurance and Monitoring of Site Excellence
The Office of Experiential Learning will employ several methods to monitor the quality of the experiential site; these include, but are not limited to:
• Student evaluations
• On-site visit and direct observation by the Office of Experiential Learning
• Changes in pharmacy practice at the site
When identified and correctable, the Director of the Office of Experiential Learning will address deficiencies directly with the preceptor. When the Office of Experiential Learning identifies deficiencies deemed to NOT be correctable, the preceptor site in question will be removed from the available site list.
Data derived from student portfolios, quality evaluations and student site evaluations will be summarized yearly and included within the Office of Experiential Program’s annual report to the Curriculum Committee.