1. General Policy

The publications policy of the Academy is intended to implement the goal of publication of the Proceedings by the Academy, namely, stimulation of research on the part of West Virginia scientists and Academy members by providing an outlet for publication of their research results. Within the limits of available resources, the Academy will attempt to maximize the number of articles it can publish, while maintaining standards by the peer review process. Where selection must be made, the sole criterion for judgment shall be the quality of the research involved. Articles of a local or regional nature, as well as those of broader scope, will be encouraged. Articles will not be discriminated against because of their subject matter, as long as they satisfy the requirement of the By-Laws that they be "...of a scientific nature" (Section VII, Article 1).

The Academy will consider papers that report the results of original research or observation. The Academy will not publish papers that have been published elsewhere. Each manuscript will be reviewed by the Publications Committee and by referees. Manuscripts longer than 15 pages of double spaced typed copy normally will not be accepted. Membership in the Academy is a requirement for publishing in the Proceedings. In the case of joint authorship, at least one author must be a member of the Academy. No author, or co-author, may submit more than two papers for any volume of the Proceedings. Ordinarily, papers offered for publication must have been presented at the annual meeting of the Academy but presentation is not a requirement for publication. Publication is not automatic. The proceedings editors also solicit outstanding expository papers.


2. Abstract for Annual Meeting

A 'call-for-abstracts' will be sent to members prior to each Annual Meeting.

The abstract will be formatted in the following manner:

JOHN SMITH, Dept of Biological Mathematics, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV, 26506, and JIM DOE, Dept of Chemical Sociology, Marshall University, Huntington, WV 25755. Analysis of trigonometric cell structure in the chromosome.

Skip one line and begin the first paragraph of text. Single-space the text. Start each new paragraph by indenting 0.25” (1/4”) using a tab, not the space bar. Do not skip a line between paragraphs. Standard abbreviations can be used. The abstract should contain a brief statement of (a) the objectives of the study, (b) the method of study used, (c) the essential results including data and statistics, (d) the conclusions, and (e) the source of support (if applicable). Figures and tables cannot be accommodated. Please check the abstract for misspellings, poor hyphenation, and poor grammar. The text of the abstract should not exceed 250 words.

3.  Manuscripts

Manuscripts for publication should be sent to the editor, Dr. Richard Ford, Hamblin Hall 101D, WVSU, Box 1000, Institute WV 25112-1000. Manuscripts must be sent electronically by email in Microsoft WORD to Richard Ford at  One hardcopy should also be sent to the address above.  Proofs, edited manuscripts, and all correspondence regarding papers for publication should be directed to the editor.

 a. Cover-sheet (Title and by-line)

The cover sheet for each manuscript should include the title (bold New Times Roman 12 pt) of the paper followed by the names and business addresses of all authors. The corresponding author should be indicated by an asterisk and include a business phone number, fax number (if available) and e-mail address (if available)

 b. Organization of Manuscripts

Each manuscript shall start with an abstract (no more than 250 words) that should summarize the primary results. In general, the introductory abstract will replace a summary. This abstract should be suitable for sending to international abstracting services for immediate publication in the event that the paper is accepted for publication in the Proceedings.

The following sequence is suggested for organizing a paper: Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results, Discussion, Acknowledgments, and Literature Cited.

The text should be double-spaced (Times New Roman 12 pt font size) and pages should be numbered consecutively in the top right-hand corner of each page preceded by the author's last name. 

Major section headings (INTRODUCTION, METHODS, etc.) are to be bold and all caps and subsection headings should presented in 10-pt font size, in all caps but not bold.

Using a tab, not the space bar, indent each paragraph 0.25” (1/4”).

c. Grammatical Considerations

Place two spaces between the period at the end of one sentence and the first letter of the next sentence.

Hyphenate compound modifiers and compound words.  A modifier made up of an adverb (other than adverbs ending in -ly) + adjective, adjective + noun, or two nouns is a compound or unit modifier.  E.g., plum-pox-resistant, transgenic plum, where plum-pox-resistant is the compound modifier (hyphens are boldface for emphasis). Note: chemical names used as modifiers are not hyphenated except when misinterpretation is likely.  Examples: (1). Iron sulfide containing bacteria is commonly found ... ; (2) Iron sulfide-containing bacteria are … (In example (2), the bacteria contain iron sulfide and bacteria is the subject; in example (1) a sample of iron sulfide that contains bacteria within it is the subject).

Include a comma after each member in a series of words that forms a list in a sentence, forms a series of modifiers modifying the same item, or for a series of phrases, as this sentence itself exemplifies. E.g., …dogs, horses, antelope, and trout… A different example exemplifies an important exception: When an adjective or noun acting as an adjective is conceptually very closely related to the immediately following noun, as big in big apple, it is not considered part of the series of modifiers modifying the noun.  Thus in …moldy, green, foul-tasting big apple … commas follow all of the modifiers prior to foul-tasting, but because big is closely associated with apple, it is not in the series; hence foul-tasting is the last modifier in the series (it could have been preceded by and).

Latin epithets used in scientific names for animals and plants follow a different set of rules than English names, even “official” English names.  The guideline for English names is based on the rule “only proper nouns are capitalized in sentences”.  (Rules for the first letter of the first word in a sentence, for titles, figure captions, and table headings are different.)  E.g., coastal plain oak, raspberry horntail sawfly would not be capitalized in a sentence.  Capitalize the first letter of the first word in a sentence and capitalize the first letter for each major term in titles, figure captions, and table headings.   Note: the symbol pH always has a lower-case p and upper-case H; it should not be the first “word” in a sentence, caption, or title if things can be conveniently rearranged.

Spell out numbers “one” through “nine”; use numerals for numbers higher than nine.  As with pH, avoid beginning sentences, captions, and titles with a numeral.

There exist hyphens, en-dashes, and em-dashes, and each has a use.  One should distinguish especially between the hyphen (the shortest of these marks) and the en-dash (the intermediate in length of the three).  The en-dash should be used in two-word concepts (e.g., nickel–metal hydride battery) and spans of time (e.g., for the period January–June), among other situations.  In “Word” for PCs, the en- and em-dashes are available in the “Special Characters” tab of the “Symbol” sub-menu, which is under the “Insert” menu.  In Macintosh computers the en-dash is also available directly when the “alt/option” key is held down while striking the hyphen key.

For other grammatical considerations please consult a good scientific writing reference, such as the Scientific Style and Format: The CSE Manual for Authors, Editors, and Publishers by Council of Science Educators Style Manual Committee.

4.  Figure, Illustrations, and Table Preparation

Each table or figure should be supplied with a legend sufficiently complete to make the table or figure intelligible without reference to the text. Footnotes may be used in connection with tables and figures where necessary. Footnotes should be avoided whenever possible in the text itself. Complicated formulas should be prepared with care in a form suitable for camera copy reproduction. Avoid such formulas in the text. Acceptable fonts include Times, Times New Roman, Arial, Courier, Helvetica and Symbol. Table and figure format should follow those in the vol 79: issue 2 or later.

Example Table: Table 1. Synthesis of PIT tag retention rates from American eel studies.

Prepare figures and illustrations to be close to the expected size within the publications, with a width of no less than 3 inches (column width) or 6.5 inches for full page width.

All illustrations and photographs will be published in black and white or grayscale. Use shaded fills for shapes and graphs.  For figures with bars, shading, diagonal, and horizontal lines are allowable.  Each bar fill-type should be clearly distinct.  All drawn lines must be greater than 0.25 pts (0.1 mm) thick. All figures should have a white chart area. See WVAS Proceedings 79(2) or later for example formatting.

The recommended file format and resolution for various types of line drawing and photos are:

All illustrations should be submitted electronically as a separate file for each figure.  Acceptable file format are TIF, PDF, Microsoft PPT, DOC, or XLS.  No other formats are accepted at this time.  

Please note:  Illustrations, graphs, and photos that do not comply to the recommended format will be returned to the author for correction. The manuscript will not be considered for review until it is resubmitted with the required corrections. Figures and tables covering more than one page should have the figure or table number repeated at the top of each of the other pages followed by the word "continued" within parentheses. Data, legends, and other identifiers that appear within a figure or table need to be large enough in the published version to be easily read.

5. Literature Cited

References shall be collected at the end of the manuscript as "Literature Cited" and must be cited in the text.

Citations within text:

References should be cited by author and date within the text. Separate multiple citations with a semi colon.

Example citations within text:

Single author: (Dare 2003)

Two authors: (Buzby and Deegan 1999)

Multiple authors: (Feldheim et al. 2002)

Multiple citations: (Buzby and Deegan 1999; Feldheim et al. 2002)

Citations at the end of paper:

The title of the papers cited and the inclusive page numbers must be given.

The article title should be italicized and the journal name should be normal.

Bold the volume number, italicize the issue, and present page numbers in normal font.

End each citation with a period.

Citations should be formatted with hanging indentation of 0.5”. 

Do not skip a line between citations.

Example journal citations:

Buzby, K. and L. Deegan.  1999.  Retention of anchor and passive integrated transponder tags by arctic grayling.  N. Am. J. Fish. Manage. 19(4): 1147-1150.

Dare, M.R.  2003.  Mortality and long-term retention of passive integrated transponder tags by spring Chinook salmon.  N. Am. J. Fish. Manage. 23: 1015-1019.

Feldheim, K.A., S.H. Gruber, J.R.C. de Marignac, and M.V. Ashley.  2002.  Genetic tagging to determine passive integrated transponder tag loss in lemon sharks.  J. Fish Biol. 61: 1309-1313.

Example book citation:

Stacey, M. and S. A. Barker. 1960. Polysaccharides of microorganisms. Oxford Univ. Press. London. 228 pp.

6. Submission of Revised Manuscripts

All manuscripts accepted by the peer reviewers, that need to be revised must be done according to instructions and submitted to the editor either by e-mail or on a compact disk. 

7. Proof

If galley proofs are sent to authors for corrections they should be made on margins of the proof. Proofreader's marks may be found in dictionaries, and in style manuals (e.g., "Style Manual for Biological Journals"). Changes in text after the manuscript is in galley proof are quite expensive and in general are not permitted. Galley proofs must be corrected and returned promptly (within ten days).

8. Reprints

A reprint order blank will be sent with the galley proofs. This should be returned with the corrected proof.

9. Cost of Publication

 Authors will be billed by the Academy for pages in excess of the maximum allowed, see item 1. The cost of figures that require half-tone screens, such as photographs, will also be billed to the authors. Currently, a page charge of $15.00 per page is in effect and the author will be sent a pro forma invoice to see if payment can be secured from the author's institution, company, research grant, etc. Failure to honor page charges will not prevent publication of a paper, but will greatly assist the publication program of the Academy.

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