Standard 1

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Standard 1: Content and Pedagogical Knowledge – The provider ensures that candidates develop a deep understanding of the critical concepts and principles of their discipline and, by completion, are able to use discipline-specific practices flexibly to advance the learning of all students toward attainment of college- and career- readiness standards.

Candidate Knowledge, Skills, and Professional Dispositions

1.1 Candidates demonstrate an understanding of the 10 InTASC standards at the appropriate progression level(s) in the following categories: the learner and learning; content; instructional practice; and professional responsibility.

Provider Responsibilities:

1.2 Providers ensure that candidates use research and evidence to develop an understanding of the teaching profession and use both to measure their P-12 students’ progress and their own professional practice.

1.3 Providers ensure that candidates apply content and pedagogical knowledge as reflected in outcome assessments in response to standards of Specialized Professional Associations (SPA), the National Board for Professional Teaching Standards (NBPTS), states, or other accrediting bodies (e.g., National Association of Schools of Music – NASM).

1.4 Providers ensure that candidates demonstrate skills and commitment that afford all P-12 students access to rigorous college- and career-ready standards (e.g., Next Generation Science Standards, National Career Readiness Certificate, Common Core State Standards).

1.5 Providers ensure that candidates model and apply technology standards as they design, implement and assess learning experiences to engage students and improve learning; and enrich professional practice.



The knowledge base for initial programs is based on a common body of research, experience, and knowledge about teaching and learning. This body of knowledge frames what beginning teachers should know and be able to do. Through a series of courses and experiences aligned with the candidate outcomes, candidates are prepared within the framework of “Preparing the Professional Educator as Critical Thinker.” (CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK) Candidate outcomes are derived from the standards adopted by the West Virginia Board of Education (WVBOE) and are correlated, as seen in the Crosswalk, with the Interstate New Teacher Assessment and Support Consortium (InTASC) standards, the National Board for Professional Teaching Standards (NBPT), and CAEP standards (CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK). Individual programs are also accountable for standards adopted by applicable national organizations (SPAS).

The standards for which each candidate must demonstrate competency include the learner and learning, content, instructional practice, and professional responsibility. Various assessments are collected to show student mastery of skills in relation to the standards (InTASC). Via multiple measures, including state tests, key assessments, performance tasks, and clinical experience data, the initial level shows candidate understanding of InTASC standards.

The first assessment monitored by the initial level is candidate performance on the Praxis II content tests (PRAXIS II SCORES) which measure candidate content knowledge. Overall, initial level candidates have regularly met or exceeded the qualifying score for the Praxis II exam. Of all the initial level licensure areas requiring PRAXIS II, 13 have posted pass rates above 80% for each of the last 4 years, and 8 of those have 100% pass rates every year. The only areas for concern are Spanish and Math 5-Adult since the pass rates fall below 80%. As a result, the faculty have created workshops for both areas and continue to explore conversations with departments across campus to examine curriculum development and course offerings that better meet candidate needs.

Candidates for initial level licensure are also required to pass the applicable Professional Learning and Teaching (see PLT) test. Four year pass rates for all initial level secondary programs are at 100%, with the exception of Physical Education (83% in 2013-14 and 75% in 15-16) and Music (67% in 2013-14 and 93% in 16-17). Elementary education rates also remain strong, reaching 98% in 2013-14, 100% in 14-15, 96% in 15-16, and 100% in 16-17. The pass rates are shared with faculty who teach in the content areas each semester during the CSLCITE meetings, as well as in EPPAC meetings (see CSLCITE and EPPAC).

In addition to the state content tests, three key assessments also provide evidence of initial level candidates’ understanding of the InTASC standards. These include the Unit Plan (PERFORMANCE TASKS), Level III Clinical (LEVEL III), and the West Virginia Teaching Performance Assessment (see WVTPA).

The unit/lesson plan, administered in the elementary Reading (CI 447) and secondary methods (CI 415) courses, is a common initial level unit plan. On a 4-point scale, elementary candidate mean scores from the past three semesters ranged from 3.71-4.00, and secondary mean scores ranged from 3.38-3.86. Upon review of the unit/lesson plan format, faculty determined revisions were necessary and began validity and reliability studies Spring 2017. An initial Q-sort conducted with faculty revealed 28 important elements. A group of experts, including elementary/secondary methods faculty, cooperating supervisors, and classroom teachers then completed a survey validating essential items. Lawshe’s CVR was calculated and a new unit/lesson plan format was piloted in Fall 2017. After minor revisions, the new format is being used in all education courses beginning Spring 2018 (RELIABILITY AND VALIDITY PROCESS).

Level III evaluations show how the initial level teacher candidates perform in student teaching. To receive a passing score on the Level III evaluation, teacher candidates may receive no scores at the “unsatisfactory” level. Since 2013, at least 90% of all teacher candidates have performed at the distinguished and accomplished levels on every element of the evaluation. The rubric is the same evaluation tool that is used to evaluate teachers in the field and is aligned to the WV Professional Teaching Standards (WVPTS) and ten InTASC standards.

Initial level teacher candidates also complete the West Virginia Teacher Performance Assessment (WVTPA) during student teaching. Teacher candidates must pass the WVTPA with a score of “2” or above (on a 4-point scale) on each element of the seven tasks. In the past three semesters, the initial level has a 100% passage rate for all teacher candidates. Ninety percent of all candidates in Fall 2016 received scores at the “emerging” and “accomplished” levels, with approximately 10% receiving “distinguished” marks. Approximately 36% of the candidates had to resubmit one or more part(s) of the WVTPA to pass. Candidates were given chances to resubmit portions of the WVTPA not receive a “2” on the first submission. Reasons for resubmissions were due to students leaving a section blank and/or being too vague in their explanations. During the Fall 2016 semester, elementary and secondary candidates were fairly even in their scores, however elementary candidates did receive higher scores in “Instructional Strategies” (Task 4), “Classroom Set-up and Organization” (Task 5), “Flexibility” (Task 5), “Student Engagement” (Task 5), “Clarity and Representation of Evidence” (Task 6), “Interpretation of Data” (Task 6), and “Evidence of Impact” (Task 6). During the Spring 2017 semester, overall scores were higher by 10-20% in most tasks. Fall 2017 scores showed improvement with 75% of candidates scoring at the “accomplished” and “emerging” levels on all tasks of the WVTPA, and 25% scoring at the “distinguished” level. As evidenced in the InTASC Alignment to Key Assessments (InTASC), the WVTPA addresses all ten InTASC standards. With 100% of student teachers passing the WVTPA, it is evident that candidates are competent in the InTASC standards.

An additional requirement during the student teaching semester is the successful completion of the Student Teaching Capstone Interview (CAPSTONE INTERVIEW INITIAL LEVEL). Candidates meet with a three-member team (including P-12 faculty and administrators) and discuss their student teaching experience and impact on student learning. The candidate must score at least 3.0 (on a 4-point scale). With a mean score of 3.4 or better over the past six semesters, it is apparent that candidates are capable of discussing their student teaching experience focusing on the learner and learning, content, instructional practice, and professional responsibility. During the six semesters of included data, the weaker areas for the candidates are interpretation of student learning, consideration of content instruction, selected learning goals and objectives, and instructional decision-making; however, the means did not fall below 3.4 when aggregated. When disaggregated by semesters, all mean scores were still at a 3.2 or higher.

At the initial level, the EPP also administers assessments for five performance tasks (PERFORMANCE TASKS) that indicate understanding of InTASC. These tasks challenge teacher candidates to demonstrate a critical understanding of education. At least 80% of our candidates receive an “excellent” or “good” rating on each of the performance tasks, showing they understand the learner’s development and learning (case study, unit/lesson plans, management plans, and diversity tutoring project), content (unit/lesson plans), instructional practice (unit/lesson plans, management plans, diversity tutoring project) and professional responsibility (diversity tutoring project, management plans).

Over the past five semesters, data for the case study in the Educational Psychology of the Developing Learner course (EDF 201) showed candidate mean scores of 2.80-4.00 (on a 4-point scale) for all initial level programs. Data for the lesson plan with technology in the Instructional Technology and Computing course (CI 350) showed candidate mean scores with ranges of 3.2-4.0. Elementary majors scored slightly higher on this task. Data for the Diversity Tutoring Project (CISP 422) showed mean scores of 3.2 to 4.0. Over the past three semesters, no difference has been noted between programs. The Classroom Management Portfolio from the Instructional and Classroom Management course (CI 442 and CI 449) has mean scores for elementary majors of 3.14-3.73 and for secondary majors 3.77-3.98. The elementary scores have gradually improved over the past five semesters, while the secondary scores have remained stable. Consistent with the EPP Conceptual Framework, the initial level has adopted four disposition concepts. These four broad areas of commitment include: to students, to the profession, to diversity, and to the use of technology in teaching. Clinical experiences provide dispositional data from LEVEL I, LEVEL II, LEVEL III, WVTPA, and the Student Teaching CAPSTONE INTERVIEW INITIAL LEVEL, as seen in the evidence. Level I data from the last four semesters (Fall 2015-Spring 2017) provide evidence that candidates understand the importance of dispositions with overall mean scores ranging from 3.49-3.99 on a 4-point scale. While scores have traditionally been high, the last two semesters have seen an upward trend in nine of the twelve indicators. Disaggregated program data indicate that elementary candidates tend to score slightly higher than secondary. Level II data provide similar results with the four semester range of scores 3.74-4.00. No differences between programs were identified from the Level II data. Four-semester Level III dispositional data reflected ranges from 3.75-4.00.

The admission process for candidates to initial programs also measures candidate dispositions. In an effort to recruit and admit a stronger candidate pool with the dispositional ability to meet the demands of being a teacher, the initial level decided in the spring of 2013 to increase admission requirements for acceptance. Recognizing the need to document and monitor candidates more closely as well as to increase expectations, the initial level began discussions of an increase in GPA and the inclusion of a candidate admission portfolio requiring a self-assessment, professional recommendations completed by professors or employers, and a professional writing sample. After a pilot study in the fall of 2016, the new Candidate Admission Policy (CAP) (CANDIDATE ADMISSION POLICY INITIAL LEVEL) was formally implemented in the spring of 2017. First semester data results are encouraging with self-assessment scores ranging from 2.90-3.75 (on a 4-point scale) on the fourteen standards. Important to note, the spring 2017 candidates for admission did rate “uses technology to enhance the educational experience” as the lowest. While the majority of candidates at this point in their program have not yet completed the CI 350 Instructional Technology course, the initial level does plan to specifically monitor technology commitment as a result of the low number. CAP professional recommendations for candidates provided supporting data on potential admits with averages ranging from 3.33-3.63. Secondary candidates scored slightly higher than elementary.

Another dispositional selectivity process is the monitoring of candidates receiving N/C (no credit) for any of the three major clinical experiences. The initial level monitors candidate completion of all clinical experiences and collects data from LEVEL I, LEVEL II, and LEVEL III non-completers. Candidates who fail to receive credit for any of the clinical experiences must meet with either their specific Program Director or the Student Center of Professional Education Services (SCoPES) Director in order to re-enroll in the experiences. The Level I Clinical Experience (EDF 270-35 hours) takes place in a public school and provides candidates their first opportunity to work with faculty, staff, and students in a teaching and learning environment. The majority (90.11% from Fall 2014-Spring 2017) of teacher candidates complete the experience and receive credit for the course. Of the 63 candidates receiving N/C over the past six semesters, 33 have transferred out of the COEPD and 17 are no longer enrolled at the university. Only 13 remain enrolled in the college, and of those, nine have now received credit for the experience. Further examination of the data reveals that more non-completers are at the secondary level (40) than the elementary (20) or early childhood (3) levels. Of the secondary majors, Social Studies (11) and English (8) have the highest numbers, although those programs do have larger enrollments. Art (7) has a disproportionately large number of non-completers and a high rate of transfer. The Level II Clinical Experience provides candidates an opportunity to put theory into classroom practice and requires 75 hours of contact. The vast majority (98.33% from Fall 2014-Spring 2017) of teacher candidates complete the experience and receive credit for the course. Since the number of non-completers (six over the last six semesters) is so low, trends have proved difficult to identify. More elementary candidates (four of the six) than secondary have received N/C. Two did repeat the experience and move on to graduate, and two others are currently enrolled hoping to complete. The Level III all-day student teaching clinical experience data also provide positive results with an overwhelming majority (98.67% from Fall 2014-Spring 2017) of teacher candidates completing the experience and receiving credit for the course. Since fall 2014, only seven candidates have failed to complete the experience. Of the seven, three completed the experience the next semester, three are currently student teaching, and one transferred out of the program.


The initial level of the COEPD is committed to enabling its candidates to use research and evidence to develop their understanding of the teaching profession and measure P-12 student progress. As stated in the Conceptual Framework, a goal is to implement and support research focused on issues and concerns of the region, state, and broader professional community. Initial level candidates to determine the needs of schools and P-12 learners, research solutions, implement interventions, and collect and evaluate data to determine the effectiveness of their instruction. Data analysis guides decision making regarding modifications to teaching.

Initial level candidates are also prepared to become skilled critical thinkers who systematically analyze each part of their thinking, assess it for quality, and then improve it. This is exhibited in the field when candidates evaluate data from the classroom and community, reflect on the effect on student learning and make adjustments in practice that are informed by that analysis. This process helps build the critical thinking skills of candidates.

As a critical thinker, the initial level candidate develops inquiry skills to study educational phenomena across different social contexts. A review of classes and clinical experience activities indicate that all programs ensure that candidates actively use evidence to make instructional decisions. In all programs, candidates are required to collect data on P-12 students. Depending on the situation, candidates may implement an intervention, revise a lesson plan, or consult with school administrators concerning needed systemic changes. During clinical experiences candidates face issues that will require effective decisions. Reflection helps them understand the effects of those decisions on both students and the learning process. Daily written reflections are required for LEVEL II and LEVEL III.

In addition, all initial level COEPD candidates are exposed to different types of research methodologies. Performance Tasks and National Board Assessments (PERFORMANCE TASKS and NBCT) include assignments that ask candidates to read research articles, use evidence to modify instruction, and/or examine school/classroom demographics. In the EDF 435 (Assessment) and EDF 201 (Educational Psychology) courses, candidates are required to be knowledgeable about how to access the literature, critique research studies, and understand different data collection methods.

While in the schools, initial level candidates collaborate with cooperating teachers to develop plans to improve student progress. As documented previously, teacher candidates complete the WVTPA during their first student teaching placement. Task 3 of the WVTPA is designed to measure the P-12 students’ progress with the use of pre- and post-tests, along with other forms of assessment. Tasks 2-6 show that teacher candidates must be able to write a unit based on pretest data. Once the unit has been taught, the students gather more data from the posttest and do analysis as to how well the P-12 students learned or did not learn. The students’ progress is measured by looking at the covered learning goals and whether they were met by each individual student. Data analyses are completed by the initial level candidate to see what could have been done to improve learning. In all of these tasks, teacher candidates demonstrate an understanding of the teaching profession while using data to show their students’ progress and modify future lessons and instruction. Over the past three semesters, all teacher candidates have shown an understanding of the progress of their P-12 students. Scores on the WVPTA have been at 2.0 or better for both elementary and secondary candidates.


All initial level candidates have opportunities to learn and apply specialized content and pedagogical Per the SPAS Chart, the initial level has three fully approved programs, Elementary Education, Early Childhood Education, and Music (approved by NASM). Nine programs were submitted in March and were Recognized with Conditions (English 5-Adult, English 5-9, SOS 5 Adult, SOS 5-9, Biology, Chemistry, Physics, General Science 5-Adult, and General Science 5-9). Problems noted in the SPA reports included lack of alignment of rubrics with standards, inadequate student teaching data, and assessment instruments with insufficient items. The issues delineated in the program reports were corrected and these SPAs resubmitted in September 2017. Two additional programs (Math 5-Adult and Math 5-9) were submitted for the first time in September 2017. Due to program redesign and faculty attrition, Wellness, Foreign Language, and Special Education SPAs will have either their first submission or resubmission in March 2018. A table summarizing the submitted and pending changes to SPAs can be found in Status of Programs not Fully Recognized. One initial program area (Art) has written a Program Review with Feedback Report, attached to the Self-Study Report.

In addition to national and state review, Marshall University reviews programs annually (PROGRAM REVIEWS). Every five years, programs are reviewed by the Board of Governors. Areas reviewed include entrance standards, course enrollment, exit abilities, graduate satisfaction, student learning outcomes, program strengths, program weaknesses, and program plans for improvement. Samples of Program Reviews and Five Year Program Reviews can be found in Standard 5. All of our program reports for the last five years have been accepted by the Board of Governors without plans for improvement. Faculty have been praised for the quality programs offered in COEPD. More information about this process can be found in the Standard 5 report.

As another indicator of teaching effectiveness, COEPD tracks the number of its completers attaining National Board Certification (NBCT) in the state of West Virginia. According to the NBCT website, a decade of research shows that students of Board-certified teachers learn more than their peers without Board certified teachers. Studies have also found that the positive impact of having a board-certified teacher is even greater for minority and low-income students. Board certification allows teachers to hone their practice, showcase their talent in the classroom, and demonstrate their dedication to their students and profession. Since 2005, 124 Marshall University graduates from 15 different content areas have become Nationally Board Certified. The highest numbers of NBCT completers are in the areas of Reading/Language Arts (33), English (23), Generalist/ECE (13), Mathematics (11), and Exceptional Needs (10). COEPD candidates with NBCT designations have been employed in 28 different West Virginia counties throughout the state, predominantly in high need areas.

In an effort to familiarize initial level teacher candidates with the National Board Certification process and to better prepare them to be ready to follow these same standards and be able to complete the process when they begin teaching, National Board-based assignments were incorporated in the elementary and secondary programs in the fall of 2010. Initial level candidates are required to attend a National Board Informational Session to learn about the standards and how they will be incorporated in the courses. Since inception, over 1,100 teacher candidates have completed assignments based on the standards.


Initial level candidates demonstrate their ability to teach to COLLEGE AND CAREER READY STANDARDS throughout the program, as seen in the evidence document. From admission through completion, candidates develop both knowledge/awareness and practical application of the standards. Candidate understanding of the College and Career Ready Standards is monitored in multiple ways: 1) Completion of professional education courses, 2) CANDIDATE ADMISSION PORTFOLIO INITIAL LEVEL, 3) Completion of LEVEL I, LEVEL II, and LEVEL III Clinical Experiences, 4) Completion of the WVTPA, 5) Completion of the CAPSTONE INTERVIEW INITIAL LEVEL, and 6) Passing score on the PLT. Professional education courses provide candidates with an initial exposure to the college and career ready standards. Of the 23 different courses, 11 (48%) address college and career readiness standards for instruction and 19 (90%) address college and career ready dispositions. Clinical experiences and methods courses also provide ample opportunity for initial level candidates to demonstrate practical application of the standards via lesson planning and standards-based instruction.

Initial level teacher candidates are required to reference West Virginia content standards for all lesson plan assignments in both coursework and clinical experiences. Before the summer of 2016, the state of WV aligned its curriculum to the Common Core Standards and referred to them as Next Generation Standards. Teacher candidates utilized these state objectives until the summer of 2016 when the standards went through several state initiated changes. English Language Arts, Mathematics, and Social Studies are now WV College- and Career-Readiness Standards, Science and Health are still referenced as WV NxGen Content Standards and Objectives for WV Schools, and Physical Education, Foreign Language and Music are referred to as 21st Century Content Standards and Objectives. Initial level teacher candidates now select objectives for their lesson plans from these state standards in all course assignments and clinical experiences. Unit plan data from both Level II and Level III provide evidence of candidate ability to teach COLLEGE AND CAREER READY STANDARDS. Teacher candidate mean scores on aligning standards to the lesson content and teaching over the past four semesters have remained steady within programs. Elementary teacher candidates show a mean score ranging from 3.71-4.00, and secondary candidates mean scores range from 3.38-3.86., with little range among content areas or programs. With very few exceptions, candidates have performed at the 3.0 level. As detailed previously, the initial level began the revision process to reflect a more appropriate alignment for the unit/lesson plan in the spring of 2017, and all lesson plans will continue to be based on the state’s College and Career-Ready standards.

In Task 2 of the WVTPA, the focus is on alignment of standards and learning goals. Over the last three semesters, the mean scores of 2.55-2.84 show teacher candidates are able to identify appropriate College and Career Ready standards for their students. Scores indicate both elementary and secondary candidates are at either the “emerging” or “accomplished” levels.


Initial level programs incorporate technology usage by the candidates throughout their respective plans of study. Technology use aligns with CAEP standards, respective SPA standards, as well as ISTE and other national standards involving teaching pedagogy. Candidates are first introduced to technological standards and applicable teaching through modeling by EPP faculty. Initial level faculty use a wide variety of technologies as part of their teaching processes, as can be seen in the technology usage chart (TECH SURVEY RESULTS).

Candidate application of technology begins before formal admittance into the program, as candidates are required to complete a 35 hour clinical experience and an admission application portfolio via the LiveText online platform. After admission, initial level programs ensure candidates understand, model, and apply technology standards through coursework and clinical experiences. All initial level programs require a specific technology course for candidates and embed technology in many other professional education courses. Elementary and Secondary candidates are introduced to the national ISTE teaching standards in PERFORMANCE TASKS (CI 350-Instructional Technology and Computing), a curriculum class taken at candidate freshman/sophomore level. A key assessment in this course is a unit plan in the candidate’s proposed teaching content area that incorporates technology. Mean scores for the past three semesters ranged from 3.2-4.0. Little difference was noted between content areas or programs.

Of the other 23 different professional education courses, 18 (78%) ask candidates to evaluate and collect relevant resources, such as websites related to their field of study. Nearly all of the courses (91%) require candidates to access library research databases, digital media, or other digital tools to improve learning (COURSE TECHNOLOGY USAGE). Initial level COEPD teacher candidates are equipped to use technology in planning and implementing lessons, assessing student work, and improving data collection and analysis. WVTPA Task 6-Impact on Student Learning mean scores provide evidence of candidate ability to implement technology. Three semester mean scores range from 2.0-3.0 (on a 4-point scale) showing candidates are achieving the anticipated level of mastery.

The LiveText web-based software platform provides a continuous vehicle for candidates technological development. It enables mentor teachers to monitor and evaluate candidate performance in their respective classrooms and work with the university supervisor on candidates’ final evaluation through shared formative feedback and communication. Through this platform, candidates in the initial teaching programs are required to video their teaching and create a portfolio that includes responding to questions, using the video as evidence to support their written answers. Mentoring classroom teachers are given continual opportunities to provide feedback to candidates about the quality of their work via the platform.


The initial level of the COEPD demonstrates candidates develop a deep understanding of the critical concepts and principles of their discipline. Armed with this knowledge, candidates are able to positively impact the learning of their P-12 students and flexibly advance them toward attainment of college and career readiness. Initial level candidates exhibit competency in InTASC standards through scores on state content tests, and data provided from key assessments, performance tasks, and clinical experiences. In addition, WVTPA scores show candidates are capable of conducting research during clinical experiences to improve student performance and develop a better understanding of the teaching profession. Initial level candidates determine the needs of their P-12 learners and construct lesson/unit plans based on College and Career Ready standards. Candidates are reflective practitioners researching solutions, implementing interventions, and collecting and evaluating data to determine the effectiveness of their instruction. As delineated in the Conceptual Framework for the COEPD, candidates are critical thinkers committed to students, technology, diversity, and the profession.

Evidence Applys To
PROGRAM REVIEWS 1.1 Understanding of InTASC Standards
1.3 Application of content and pedagogical knowledge
CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK 1.1 Understanding of InTASC Standards
1.2 Use of research and evidence to measure students’ progress
COLLEGE AND CAREER READY STANDARDS 1.4 All P-12 students afforded access to college- and career-ready standards.
CSLCITE 1.1 Understanding of InTASC Standards
InTASC 1.1 Understanding of InTASC Standards
LEVEL I 1.1 Understanding of InTASC Standards
LEVEL II 1.1 Understanding of InTASC Standards
1.2 Use of research and evidence to measure students’ progress
1.4 All P-12 students afforded access to college- and career-ready standards.
LEVEL III 1.1 Understanding of InTASC Standards
1.2 Use of research and evidence to measure students’ progress
1.4 All P-12 students afforded access to college- and career-ready standards.
NBCT 1.2 Use of research and evidence to measure students’ progress
1.3 Application of content and pedagogical knowledge
PERFORMANCE TASKS 1.1 Understanding of InTASC Standards
1.2 Use of research and evidence to measure students’ progress
1.3 Application of content and pedagogical knowledge
1.5 Model and apply technology standards
PLT 1.1 Understanding of InTASC Standards
PRAXIS II SCORES 1.1 Understanding of InTASC Standards
WVTPA 1.1 Understanding of InTASC Standards
1.2 Use of research and evidence to measure students’ progress
1.4 All P-12 students afforded access to college- and career-ready standards.
1.5 Model and apply technology standards
TECH SURVEY RESULTS 1.5 Model and apply technology standards
EPPAC 1.1 Understanding of InTASC Standards
SPAS 1.1 Understanding of InTASC Standards
1.3 Application of content and pedagogical knowledge
COURSE TECHNOLOGY USAGE 1.5 Model and apply technology standards

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